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Lecture 7

LING 1200 Lecture 7: Lecture 7

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LING 1200
Erin L.Wilkinson

− Independent variable: the variable that the researcher manipulates (gets control of the variable) − Dependant variable: the variable that gets measured to determine whether manipulating the independent variable had any effect − We measure the dependant variable to see if the independent variable has any effect on it − Between-Subject experimental design: different participants contribute data for each level of the independent variable − Within-Subjects experimental design: the same participants contribute data for each level of the independent variable − Advantages: if done properly, a researcher can firmly establish that one variable has a causal influence on another variable (but there are a lot of things that can make the experiment invalid) − Challenges (can be overcome by employing control procedures): - Confounding variables: other factors that could vary along with manipulating the independent variable – if confounding variables exist, one cannot be sure that it is the independent variable that caused changes in the dependant variable (things need to be consistent) - Observer bias: if the researcher has an expectation about the outcome of an experiment, their interpretation of the behaviour might be biased in favor of the hypothesis - Expectancy effects: participants might guess what the researchers’ expectations are for the outcome of the study causing them to behave as expected or to go out the their way to behave contrary to expectations - Placebo effects: A type of expectancy effect that
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