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Lecture 20

LING 1200 Lecture 20: Lecture 20

3 Pages

Course Code
LING 1200
Erin L.Wilkinson

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em Cells: − Newly formed neurons that have the capacity to divide and multiply (called neurogenesis) − Many brain disease could be eliminated by stimulating the growth of new neurons (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s) − Scientists prefer the embryonic stem cells obtained from aborted fetuses because they can form any type of cell (regenerate brain tissue) – ethical controversy Message transfer in the nervous system: Synapse: − Point of information transfer from axon of one neuron to dendrite of another − Consists of: one neurons axon terminal, a synaptic cleft (tiny space between the axon terminal and a dendrite), and another neurons dendrite Relationship between Learning and Synapses: − Number of synapses in the brain increase during infancy, as an outcome of learning − Unused synapses are “pruned” away (at early stage of development) − Patterns of communication between brain cells (at synapses) are modified by learning (throughout lifetime) − Changes in connections between neurons in response to experience is called brain plasticity − Nature of connections in brain change drastically throughout life span Information Transfer between Neurons: − When a neurons dendrite is stimulated (receives messages) positively charges sodium ions move inside the neuron, while positively changed potassium ions move out − Creates a change in electrical voltage or an action potential (created
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