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Lecture 9

MBIO 1010 Lecture 9: Lecture 9

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University of Manitoba
MBIO 1010
Christopher Rathgeber

Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes Allows them to stick to the environment Pellicles = Protein in protective barrier against other materials that cover the bacteria Pili o Filamentous protein structures (Figure 2.34) o Typically longer than fimbriae o Assist in surface attachment o Facilitate genetic exchange between cells (conjugation) o Type IV pili involved in twitching motility Allows them to them to spread instructions very quickly within a population of unrelated bacteria (different genius and different species) Gram neg. (twitching motility – extend or take out some of the proteins with the pili structure to make it shorter or longer) Cell Inclusion Bodies Visible aggregates in cytoplasm Carbon storage polymers o Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB): lipid Glycogen: glucose polymer Polyphosphates: accumulations of inorganic phosphate Sulfur globules: composed of elemental sulfur Magnetosomes: magnetic storage inclusions Storage granules that they can tap into them if his needs arise. Inclusion Bodies Carbon storage polymers Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) Lipid storage  Glycogen granules  Polymer of glucose Inorganic inclusions Polyphosphate granules – volutin  Storage of phosphate and energy Sulfur gStorage of sulfur used in energy generation. Fats are rich in energy Inorganic inclusions – Do not have carbon but instead will store other materials. Need sulfur in our amino acids and is used for energy or for amino acid production. Magnetic inclusions - Magnetosomes o Intracellular granules of Oe4or FeS4 49 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes Gives thAllows it to orient itself in a magnetic field o Bacteria migrate along Earth’s magnetic field – magnetotaxis Allows the cell to align itself in a magnetic field so it can move along the field from point A to point B. Gas Vesicles Confer buoyancy in planktonic cells Spindle-shaped, gas-filled structures made of protein Function by decreasing cell density Impermeable to water o Cyanobacteria form “blooms” Require light energy for photosynthesis. Can’t confer a buoyant, they don’t have the same light exposure so then photosynthesis. Endospores Endospores o Highly differentiated cells resistant to heat, harsh chemicals, and radiation o “Dormant” stage of bacterial life cycle (Figure 2.43) o Ideal for dispersal via wind, water, or animal gut Gram positive only (only some gram + though – only some genius and species) But all gram neg. have LPS. Bacterial endospores Produced only by some Gram positives o Ex. Bacillus sp. – aerobic Gram + rods Ex. Clostridium sp. – anaerobic Gram + rods Vegetative cell– capable of normal growth Metabolically active Endospore – dormant cell, formed inside of a mother cell Metabolically inactive o Triggered by lack of nutrients o Takes about 8 - 10 hours 50 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes Metabolism is essentially zero. Triggered by lack of nutrients or boiling water etc. Protective features of the Endospore Layers: Spore coat and cortex – protect against chemicals, enzymes, physical damage, and heat Two membranes – permeability barriers against chemicals Core: Dehydrated – protects against heat Ca-dipicolinic acid and SASPs  Protect against DNA damage Endospores can resist: Boiling for hours UV, g radiation Chemical disinfectants Dessication Age DNA is the instructions to develop the things of a normal cell again. Reason it has two membranes is because it starts off as a cell that is engulfed by the mother cell. Dehydrated because heat affects you a lo
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