Chapter 16:Training and development
The main purpose of training and development is to raise competence and
therefore performance standards.It is also concerned with personal
development,helping and motivating employees to fulfil their potential.
Training offers some significant benefits for the organisation.
(i) Increased motivation. Training programmes can increase commitment to the
organisation’s goals, by satisfying employee’s self-actualisation needs.
(ii)Change management. Training can help organisations manage change by
letting people know why the change is happening and give them skills to cope
(iii) Developing corporate culture. Training programmes can be used to build the
corporate culture or to direct it in certain ways.
(iv) Staff retention. Training can lead to internal transfers and promotions.
(v) Recruitment and succession planning.
(vi) Increased organisational flexibility. Training ensures that people have a
variety of skills.
(vii) Fewer accidents and better health and safety.
(viii) Less need for supervision – properly trained people can get on with the job
and managers can concentrate on other things.
(ix) Better job performance resulting from improved skills.
Training offers many benefits for the individual.
(i) Psychological benefits. The employee feels reassured that he or she is of value
to the organisation. Increased skill,knowledge and competence also enhances
self-esteem and confidence.
(ii) Enhanced portfolio of skills. Even if not specifically related to the current job,
training can be useful in other contexts,and the employee becomes more
attractive to employers and more promotable.
(iii) Training can also provide the necessary skills and competence that an
employee needs for future promotion.
(iv) Social benefit. People’s social needs can be met through training and they can
also develop a network of contacts.
(v) The job itself. Training can help people to do their job better, thereby
increasing job satisfaction, promotion and earning
prospects. In order to ensure that training meets the real needs of the organisation,larger
firm adopt a systematic approach to training.This has the following steps.
Step 1:Identify and define the organisation’s skill requirements.
Step 2:Define the learning required.In other words,specify the knowledge,skills or
competences that have to be acquired.
Step 3:Define training objectives-what must be learnt and what trainees must be
able to do after the training exercise.
Step 4:Plan training programmes.
(i) Who provides th training.
(ii) Where the training takes place.
(iii) What methods of training will be used.
Step 5:Implement the training programme.
Step 6:Monitor,review and evaluate training.Has it been successful in achieving
the learning objectives?
Step 7:Go back to Step 2 if more training is needed.
A thorough analysis of training needs should be carried out as part of a
systematic approach to training,to ensure that training programmes meet
organisational and individual requirements.Once training needs have been
identified,they should be translated into training objectives.Some training needs
will emerge in the course of work and workplace changes.
(i) If forthcoming legislation or regulation is likely to affect your work
role,you will need to get information on the provisions and their
implications for your work.
(ii) If new technology or equipment is introduced in your organisation,you
may need to learn how to use it.
(iii) If your organisation is seeking accreditation for its training scheme,or is
seeking a British or International Standard(say,for quality systems,ISO
9000),it will have certain training requirements imposed on it by the
Individuals can incorporate training and development objectives into a personal
development plan.A personal development plan is a clear developmental action
plan for an individual which incorporates a wide set of developmental
opportunities,including formal training.A systematic approach to personal
development planning will include the following steps. Step 1:Select an area for development.You might carry out personal SWOT
Step 2:Set a SMARTER(specific,measurable,agreed,realistic,time-
bounded,evaluated and reviewed) learning objective.
Step 3:Determine how you will move towards your objective:
(i) Research releva