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Lecture

Chapter 9.docx

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Department
Marketing
Course
MKT 2210
Professor
Subbu Sivaramakrishnan
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9:Leadership,management and supervision Power is the ability to get things done.Power has been classified into six types:Coercive power(power of physical force),resource power(control over valued resources),legitimate/position power(power associated with position in hierarchy),expert power(power of expertise),personal power(force of personality) and negative power(power to disrupt operations). Authority is the right to get things done:to ask someone else to do something and expect it to be done.Authority is thus another word for position or legitimate power. Delegation of authority is the process whereby a superior gives to a subordinate part of his or her own authority to make decisions.Successful delegation requires the resolution of the Trust-Control dilemma. Trust-Control dilemma: T+C=Y Where T=trust C=control exercised by superior over subordinate Y=a constant,unchanging value If there is any increase in C,the subordinate will immediate recognise that (s)he is being trust less. Managers and supervisors might need to delegate authority for a number of reasons, including the following. There are physical and mental limitations to the workload of any one individual in authority and it may be necessary to delegate to ensure that the workload can be effectively managed. Managers and supervisors may wish to delegate in order that they are free to concentrate on the aspects of their work which only they are competent to do (e.g. detailed planning or aspects of budgeting).The increasing size and complexity of many of today’s organisations demands increasing specialisation and effective delegation is one way of developing this. Managers also need to consider that delegation provide subordinates with development opportunities. Many managers and supervisors are reluctant to delegate and attempt to do many routine tasks themselves as well as more important ones. Some of the reasons for this might be as follows: (i) They may have low confidence and trust in the abilities of their staff; (ii) They may believe that they are the only one capable of doing the task properly; (iii) They may wish to keep enjoyable parts of the job to themselves; (iv) Some managers feel more powerful by retaining their decision making privileges; (v) They may fear that their subordinates will use the authority poorly; (vi) They may not wish to take on the additional burden of being accountable for any mistakes that their subordinates might make while executing the task; (vii) They may believe that their subordinates do not wish to have broader decision making responsibilities; (viii) They may wish to ‘stay in touch’ with the department or team and feel that any act of delegation removes them from the day to day activities; (ix) They may feel threatened and be unwilling to admit that assistants have developed to the extent that they could perform some of the manager’s duties.They may feel threatened by this sense of redundancy. (x) There may be poor control and communication in the organisation so that the manager feels he has to do everything himself in order to retain control and responsibility for the tasks; (xi) There may be an organisational culture which has failed in the past to recognise and reward effective delegation. In this climate the manager may feel that delegation is seen as shirking responsibility; (xii) There may be a lack of understanding about what delegation involves; (xiii) There may be a lack of training and development of managers in the skills needed for effective delegation; (xiv) Managers and supervisors may have had poor experiences of delegating to others. To overcome the problems:train the subordinates,have a system of open communications and ensure that a system of control is established. Henri Fayol classified five functions of management that apply to any organisation. They are planning, organising, commanding,co-ordinating and controlling. -Planning involves selecting objectives and the strategies, policies, programmes and procedures for achieving the objectives either for the organisation as a whole or for part of it. -Organising is about establishing a structure of tasks which need to be performed to achieve the goals of the organisation; grouping these tasks into jobs for an individual; creating groups of jobs within sections and departments: delegating authority to carry out the jobs; and providing systems of information and communication for the coordination of activities. -Commanding is about giving instructions to subordinates to carry out tasks over which the manager has authority for decisions and responsibility for performance. -Coordinating is about harmonising the activities of individuals and groups within the organisation, who may have different ideas about what their own goals should be.Management must reconcile differences in approach, effort, interest and timing of these separate individuals and groups. -Controlling is about measuring and correcting the activities of individuals and groups, to ensure that their performance is in accordance with plans. Deviations from plans are identified and corrected. There are two key omissions from Fayol’s classification. -Motivating is not mentioned.It is assumed that subordinates will carry out tasks when ‘commanded’,regardless of whether or how far they may ‘want’ to. -communicating is not mentioned. Peter Drucker has written management process and grouped the work of manager into five categories. -setting objectives for the organisation. -organising the work. -motivating employees and communicating information to them to enable them to do their work. -the job of measurement.Management must establish objectives of performance for every person in the organisation,analyse actual performance,appraise it against the objectives which have been set,and analyse the comparison,communicate the findings and explain their significance both to subordinate employees and also to superiors. -Developing people. A manager’s job is not clear-cut and systematic in practice.More recent descriptions of the manager’s role by Henry Mintzberg describe interperonal roles(figurehead,leader,liaison),informational roles(monitor,spokesperson,disseminator) and decisional roles(entrepreneur,disturbance handler,resource allocator,negotiator). A supervisor is a person selected by middle management to take charge of a group of people,or special task,to ensure that work is carried out satisfactorily. The key features of supervision are as follows: (i) A supervisor is usually a front-line manager, dealing with the levels of the organisation where the day-to-day work is done.The supervisor will deal with matters such as staffing and health and safety at the day-to-day operational level,whereas a manager might deal with them at a policy making level. (ii) A supervisor does not spend all of his or her time on the managerial aspects of the job. Much of the time will be spent doing technical/operational work. (iii) A supervisor is a gatekeeper or filter for communication between managerial and non-managerial staff, both upward(conveying reports and suggestions) and downward (conveying policies, instructions and feedback). (iv) The supervisor monitors and controls work by means of day-to-day, frequent and detailed information: higher levels of management plan and control using longer-term, less frequent and less detailed information, which must be ‘edited’ or selected and reported by the supervisor. (v) Supervisors often carry out Fayol’s five functions of management (planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling) at a lower, more operational level. There are many different def
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