Motivation is very important for improving performance of an
individual.Motivation is a decision-making process which the individual chooses
the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to acquiring
them.Manager's best interests is to have good motivation throughout a company.
Content theories of motivation suggest that the best way to motivate an
employee is to find out what his/her needs are and offer him/her rewards that
will satisfy those needs.
Example of content theories is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs which stated that
individual's needs can be arranged in a hierarchy,from the bottom is Physiological
needs(eg.food),Safety needs(security),Love/Social Needs(relationships),Esteem
needs(status) and Self Actualisation(highest level needs).
Another example is Herzberg's Two-factor Theory which highlighted two basic
needs of individuals that are "the need to avoid unpleasantness" which "Hygiene
factors"(eg.salary,working conditions) can satisfy temporarily and "the need for
personal growth and fulfilment" which "Motivator factors"(eg.challenging
work,responsibility) satisfy this.
Process theories ask the question:"how can people be motivated?".Example is
Vroom's Expectancy Theory which stated a formula F=V X E where F is the "Force
of motivation",V is "Valence" which mean the desire of individual for the reward
and E is "Expectancy" which mean the individual's believe that the behaviour can
get the reward.In this equation,the lower the values of either valence or
expectancy,the less the motivation.
Job is a motivator.Herzberg suggested three ways of improving job design to
motivate employee:job enrichment(vertical extension,delegate greater
responsibility job),job enlargement(horizontal extension,widen jobs) and job
rotation(sequential extension,transfer to different job to increase task variety). Management style is also a motivator.There are two models which illus