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Chapter 12.docx

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MKT 2210
Subbu Sivaramakrishnan

Chapter 12:Motivation Motivation is very important for improving performance of an individual.Motivation is a decision-making process which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to acquiring them.Manager's best interests is to have good motivation throughout a company. Content theories of motivation suggest that the best way to motivate an employee is to find out what his/her needs are and offer him/her rewards that will satisfy those needs. Example of content theories is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs which stated that individual's needs can be arranged in a hierarchy,from the bottom is Physiological needs(,Safety needs(security),Love/Social Needs(relationships),Esteem needs(status) and Self Actualisation(highest level needs). Another example is Herzberg's Two-factor Theory which highlighted two basic needs of individuals that are "the need to avoid unpleasantness" which "Hygiene factors"(eg.salary,working conditions) can satisfy temporarily and "the need for personal growth and fulfilment" which "Motivator factors"(eg.challenging work,responsibility) satisfy this. Process theories ask the question:"how can people be motivated?".Example is Vroom's Expectancy Theory which stated a formula F=V X E where F is the "Force of motivation",V is "Valence" which mean the desire of individual for the reward and E is "Expectancy" which mean the individual's believe that the behaviour can get the reward.In this equation,the lower the values of either valence or expectancy,the less the motivation. Job is a motivator.Herzberg suggested three ways of improving job design to motivate employee:job enrichment(vertical extension,delegate greater responsibility job),job enlargement(horizontal extension,widen jobs) and job rotation(sequential extension,transfer to different job to increase task variety). Management style is also a motivator.There are two models which illus
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