- Information can be collected by mail, telephone, or personal interview.
- Table 4-4 Strengths and Weaknesses of three Contacts Methods (131)
- Personal Interviewing takes two forms- individual and group interviewing. Individual interviewing involves
talking with people in their homes or offices, on the street, or in shopping malls. Such interviewing is flexible.
- Group Interviewing consists of 6-10 people gather for a few hours with a trained moderator to discuss a product,
service or organization.
- Focus group interviewing: personal interviewing that consist of inviting six to 10 people to gather for a few hours
with a trained interviewer to discuss a product, service, or organization. The interviewer “focuses” the group
discussion on important issues. The comments are recorded through written notes.
- Focus group interviewing has become one of the major marketing research tools for gathering insight into
consumer thoughts and feelings. However, focus group studies usually use small sample sizes to keep time and costs
down, and it may be hard to generalize from the results.
- Computer Interviewing in which respondents sit down at a computer, read questions from a screen, and type their
own answer into the computer.
- Marketing researchers usually draw conclusions about large groups of consumers by studying a small sample of
the total consumer population. A sample is a segment of the population selected to represent the population as a
- Designing the sample requires 3 decisions: 1. Who is to be surveyed (what the sampling unit)? 2. How many
people should be surveyed (What’s the sample size)? 3. How should the people in the sample be chosen (what
- Using probability samples each population member has a known chance of being included in the sample and
researchers can calculate confidence limits for sampling errors. But when probability sampling costs too much or
takes too much time, marketing researchers often take non-probability samples, even though their sampling error
cannot be measured.
- In collecting primary data, marketing researchers have a choice of 2 main research instruments – the questionnaire
and the mechanical devices.
- The questionnaire is by far the most common device. Questionnaires must be developed carefully and testes before
they can used on a large scale. When developing a questionnaire the market researchers must first decide what to
- Closed-end questions à include all possible answers, and subjects make choices among them.
- Opened-end questions à Questions allowing respondent to answer in their own words. - Researcher should also use care in wording and ordering questions. They should use simple direct, unbiased
- Table 4-7 Types of Questions (136)
Presenting the Research plan
- The proposal should cover the management problems addressed and the research objectives, the information to be
obtained, the sources of secondary information or methods for collecting primary data, and the way the results will
help management decision-making. It should also include, research cost, a written research plan, and they should all
agree on why and how the research will be conducted.
Implementing the Research plan
- This involves collecting, processing, and analysing the information. Data collection can be carried out by the
company’s marketing research staff or by outside firm. The data collection phase of the marketing res