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NURS 1260 (3)
Lecture

Unit 8 Middle Adulthood
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Department
Nursing
Course
NURS 1260
Professor
vernapangman
Semester
Winter

Description
Unit 8: Middle Adulthood Physical Changes:  Declines in functions through 40s and 50s Brain & Nervous System:  MRI gives knowledge of brain function  White matter crests  Grey matter declines  Volume of CSF increases  Areas that develop last decline first (frontal and parietal lobes)  Cognitive tasks activate large area of brain in middle aged adults  Middle aged adults have more intense concentration for rapid judgements like driving a car  Hard to find direct relationship between age-related brain differences and cross variation in behaviour Reproductive Changes Climacteric:  Reproductive capacity declines or is lost Male Climacteric:  Gradual Menopause:  Cessation of period due to decline in sex hormones  Age 50 1. Premenopausal Phase:  Estrogen levels fall  Anovulatory cycles begin (no ovum released)  Periods irregular due to progesterone loss 2. Perimenopausal Phase  Estrogen and other hormones change and decrease  Periods irregular  Hot flashes  Less sleep  Light headedness 3. Postmenopausal Phase  Estrogen and progesterone levels drop  No period for a year  Estrogen loss effects genitals and other tissue (breasts less firm, genitals and uterus shrink, vagina wall thinner) Psychological Effects:  Sex declines but most still sexually active Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT):  Use for treatment of menopausal symptoms  Alternative lifestyle encouraged (exercise, diet, stop smoking)  Discuss with doctor Osteoporosis Unit 8: Middle Adulthood  Loss bone density  Prevent by calcium intake, weight bearing exercise and tests Vision + Hearing Presbyopia  Cannot focus on near objects without bifocals Presbycusis  Loss of hearing with high frequency or low frequency without hearing aid Health Promotion and Wellness  Cancer + heart disease Cancer  Leading cause = lung cancer for men, has decreased for women  Colorectal and prostate cancer for men  Breast cancer then colorectal cancer for women  Diet is important for cancer and heart disease Cardiovascular Disease  Declined but still leading cause  In heart and cardiovascular system  Fat/plaque in arteries = atherosclerosis  Epidemiological studies (Framingham Heart Study + Nurses health study)  Risk factors: smoking, blood pressure, weight, cholesterol, type A (hostility) personality  Type D personality high risk of death after heart attack (hide negative emotions) Gender + Health  Men likely to die of CVD and heart disease Mental Health  Improves with age, self esteem peeks at 35-54 years  Addictive disorders begin in adolescence/adulthood undiagnosed until middle adulthood  Men more likely to be drinkers risk is liver cirrhosis Health Promotion Strategies Cancer:  Breast screening and mammography  PSA screening for men Cardiovascular Disease  Low fat diet and exercise Cognitive Functioning  Middle adulthood improves and others decline  Denny claims at some point optimum activity will not maintain these abilities  Schaie says those with CVD show early declines on intellectual tests  Exercise most important for reasoning, reaction time, short term memory Unit 8: Middle Adulthood Selective Optimization with compensation  Baltes say balancing gains+ loss with aging important Changes in Memory and
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