-Explicit Memory: conscious remembering of info about some event in your life. -
Implicit Memory: unconscious influence of life experiences on thought and behaviour.
Tests for Explicit Memory:
-Recall: ability to generate information about some event from your past. -
Recognition: ability to identify information that you have encountered in your past.
*Recognition is EASIER than recall.
Tests for Implicit Memory:
-Priming: present information and see whether it affects how well you do some task later. -Savings
in Re-learning: if you’ve learned info or a skill before it will be easier to re-learn it later on.
Multi-Store Model (discounted)
3 Memory Stores:
1)Sensory Memory (sensory store)
2)Short-term Store (from attention)
3)Long-term Store (rehearsal)
-retrieval is possible.
1)Sensory Memory: holds all sensory info available out there (ex: visual, auditory, smells, etc) very
-Function: gives time to decide if info is important enough for our attention, this info goes into SHORT-
TERM MEMORY while we forget about the rest.
2) Short-Term Memory:
-Able to hold about 7 ± 2 bits of info in consciousness.
-If info is not rehearsed it will be forgotten within 30 seconds
-Information is usually held in sound based code (inner voice)
*people can store more info in short-term by grouping info into meaningful chunks.
-Function: allows you to keep info in mind to achieve current goals and allows you to draw
information stored in Long-Term memory.
Serial Position Effect: when given a list of items to remember, people ware good at remembering the
first few items (primary effect) and the last few (recency effect). People are poor at remembering items
in the middle.
Primacy Effect: first few items get transferred into Long-Term memory.
Recency Effect: last few items are still in Short-Term memory.
3) Long-Term Memory: where all of our experiences and everything we know gets stored.
Types of Information:
-Procedural Memory: information on how to do things (ex: how to ride a bike) -
Declarative Memory: information about things you know (ex: capital of Canada)
1)Semantic Memory: stored info about world knowledge not tied to a specific life experience.
2)Episodic Memory: stored info about personal experience tied to a specific life experience.
*The BEST way to remember something is to think about it a lot.
ELABORATION: relating what you want to remember with existing knowledge.
ENCODING: the thinking people do now to remember something later. oSDP
Craik and Lockhart:
-Graphemic Question: look at the question. (ex: TURKEY→ is it in lower case letters?) -
Phonemic Question: how does the word sound? (ex: BUTTON→ does it rhyme with “mutton”?
-Semantic Question: meaning of the word. (ex: DOCTOR→ is it related to NURSE?)
-Surprise recall test!
Found: deeper conditioning (Semantic) leads to better recall.
Organization: forming relationships b/w items makes for a more meaningful memory that is easier