PSYC 1200 Lecture 5a
Chapter 7: Types of Memory
Explicit Memory Conscious remembering of information about some event in your life.
Implicit Memory Unconscious influence of life experiences on thought and behaviour.
Recall – Test of explicit A way of testing explicit memory that involves the ability to generate information about some event from your past.
memory e.g. if you are asked what you had for breakfast last Monday, then you would have to try to bring to mind those details.
Recognition A way of testing explicit memory that involves the ability to identify information that you have encountered in your past.
e.g. instead of asking what you had for breakfast, you might get a list where what you had for breakfast is one of the options.
Bahrick, Bahrick, & Participants age 17-74 asked to recall high school classmates and even 17 year-olds forgot 1/3 of them; recall by older participants
Wittlinger (1975) was even worse. Recognition of classmates for all age groups: 90%
Priming A way of testing implicit memory that involves the presentation of information and seeing whether it affects how you do a task later.
e.g. word-stem completion; def___ -complete the word. You would be more likely to say “defend” if shown that word earlier
Savings in Relearning A way of testing implicit memory; If you have learned information or a skill before, it will be easier to relearn it now.
This is partly the goal of introductory courses.
The Multi-Store Model There a 3 different places where information is stored in order to use it as a basis for guiding your ongoing experiences.
Three Memory Stores: sensory memory, short-term memory (STM), long-term memory.
Sensory Memory Holds all of the sensory information available out there (visual, auditory, smells, etc.) very briefly.
Functions to give time to decide which information is important enough to warrant our attention.
When we decide, information we attend to gets transferred to short-term memory, while we forget about the rest.
Auditory/Echoic sensory memory lasts about 2-3 seconds.
Visual/Iconic sensory memory lasts about 0.5 seconds.
Sperling (1960) The Whole Report Technique:
Presented people a set of 12 letters for 50 milliseconds.
Asked them to report as many as they could
On average, people report about 4.5 letters because by the time the people report 4 of them, the memory for the other
letters faded away.
All available info is stored briefly in Iconic Memory
Forgetting doesn’t take long in iconic memory
The Partial Report Technique:
Twelve letters flash and a tone presented immediately after:
High Tone = Report the Top Row
Medium Tone = Report the Middle Row
Low Tone = Report the Bottom Row
Now people report 3.2/4 letters on average.
Short-Term Memory After you attend to some source of information, it gets stored in the short-term store where you are consciously aware of it.
1. Allows you to keep in mind information you need to achieve current goals.