PSYC 1200 Lecture 5b
Chapter 7: Remembering
Remembering The best way to remember something is to think a lot about it.
Can involve the process of elaboration.
Engaging in “deep” meaningful thoughts increases the chances of remembering.
Elaboration Relating what you want to remember with existing knowledge.
Encoding The thinking people do now to allow them to remember something later.
Craik and Lockhart Experimented with deep semantic encoding.
(1972) Phase 1: People are presented with words and asked one of three types of questions:
Graphemic: Based on the way the information looks – e.g. TURKEY; is it in lower-case letters?
Phonemic: Based on the way the word sounds – e.g. BUTTON; does it rhyme with “mutton”?
Semantic: Based on the meaning of the word – e.g. DOCTOR; is it related to “nurse”?
Surprise Recall Test
People were asked to report all the words they answered questions about in Phase 1.
The probability of recalling graphemic questions was 12%; phonemic questions were 25%; semantic
questions were 45%.
Therefore, deeper encoding leads to better remembering.
Organization It is easier to remember bits of information if you related them to one another, rather than treat them as separate.
Distinctiveness Experiences that stand out in memory are easier to recall.
Experiences that you have had thousands of times are harder to remember.
The only hope in remembering them later is to somehow make them distinctive from all the others.
Distributed Practice If you want to remember something (e.g. for a test) you are better off studying little bits across time.
It ensures that you study material in different frames of mind, which maximizes both elaboration and
distinctiveness of learning.
It allows you to find out what material you have the most difficulty remembering after a delay, which allows
you to know what to focus on during later study sessions.
Massed Practice Your likelihood of success is much lower if you try to study everything in a cram session.
The ‘One is a bun…’ Associate numbers 1-10 with a thing that rhymes:
Technique 1=bun, 2=shoe, 3=tree, 4=door, 5=hive, 6=sticks, 7=heaven, 8==Date, 9=line, 10=hen.
Now form an unusual image between the items you want to remember and the things associated with each number.
Given words: lamp, monkey, violin, whistle, attic, pilot, tractor, garage, drill, kite
e.g. For lamp, you would picture a bun wrapped around a lamp; for monkey, you would picture a monkey wearing
shoes , etc.
Free Recall When you are given the task of generating as many details as you can about what you learned before.
e.g. recalling whole stories word for word.
Cued Recall When you are given some additional information to recall what you learned before.
Providing cues makes for easier remember than not providing cues.
e.g. asking specific questions about an event in your life.
Encoding Specificity In general, it is easier to remember events when the conditions present now are similar to the conditions present then.
Principle e.g. an adult may not remember their elementary school, but if they visit the school they can remember details that
occurred during childhood.
Transfer- Inspired by the „match‟ aspect of Encoding Specificity.
Appropriate The idea that people will be successful at performing any task now if they have done similar processing before.
Processing e.g. effective studying involves engaging in processing needed for scoring high on exams, such as writing ess