PSYC 1200 Lecture 5e
Chapter 8: Language
Language & Thinking Words are good for allowing abstract reasoning about complex ideas (e.g. liberty, justice, freedom, good, evil).
By determining how people think, words may have good or bad consequences
e.g. wartime death of innocent civilians = collateral damage (its less harsh to say collateral damage than to say wartime death of
Language can be used to make you think differently (e.g. if crime fighters fight crime and fire fighters fight fire, what do freedom
George Carlin Honesty may be the best policy, but it’s important to remember that apparently, by elimination dishonesty is the second-best policy.
Language Accessing the meaning of spoken or written symbols.
Language Production Communicating through the output of spoken or written symbols.
Surface Structure The ordering of words in spoken or written language.
Deep Structure The underlying meaning of those words.
Hierarchical Language Bits of sound called Phonemes combine to form meaningful sound combinations called Morphemes which on their own (clean) or
Structure combined (un-clean) form Words which combine to form Phrases which combine to form Sentences.
Development of 3-5 Weeks (Vowel Phonemes): “ooh” and “aah”
Language 4-6 Weeks (Vowel + Consonant Phonemes): “dada” and “baba”
6-18 Weeks (Morphemes): “daddy” and “bottle”
24 Months (Two-Word Phrases): “Give milk”
Preschool 5-years (Complete Sentences): “Daddy, please may I