PSYC 1200 Lecture 8d
Chapter 14: Types of Psychological Disorders
Personality Disorder Occurs when you have stable and permanent traits (e.g. stable patterns of thought or behaviour) that negatively affect your level of
functioning or the well-being of people you come into contact with.
Narcissistic People who think they are the greatest and everything in the world is about them, but don‟t care about other people.
Borderline Personality People who are emotionally volatile and act as though they are controlled by moment to moment changes in the environment
Disorder They cannot conceive of anything in the future or past, so their attitude is based on what just occurred within the last hour (e.g. if you
had a fight with one of these people, you are horrible; if you had a great time with one of these people, you are wonderful).
They have a total lack of self-control; drug abusers and risk-takers, terrible with money and credit, and wildly emotional.
Antisocial Personality People who have a complete lack of conscience or remorse for wrong-doing (e.g. morally insane, psychopaths, sociopaths).
Disorder (APD) Observed in 3% of males and 1% females, and estimated as causing over 50% of all serious crimes in the U.S.
Requires 3 of 7 symptoms since childhood:
1. Repeatedly break the law.
2. Chronic lying and duping of others.
3. Failure to appreciate consequences of actions.
4. Repeated involvement in physical violence.
5. Complete disregard for safety of themselves or others.
6. Consistent failure to meet obligations.
7. Lack of empathy and no remorse for causing harm to others.
Violent behaviour is not always a characteristic; remorseless lying, cheating, or stealing causes emotional/financial harm to others.
An intelligent person can have this disorder and they are often likeable and charming to manipulate other people‟s behaviour.
Biological Build: the nervous system of people with APD doesn‟t produce an arousal response in anticipation of
punishment as it does with normal people; thus, punishment does not people these people from doing something
Genetics: APD people may be genetically predisposed to have trouble controlling impulses. Perhaps because of a
dysfunctional prefrontal cortex (a brain area important for controlling impulses that is less active in murderers with APD).
Brain Damage: Violent criminals with APD are more likely to have been physically abused as children. There is a
possible link between APD, physical abuse during childhood, and damage to prefrontal cortex.
Vulnerability-Stress Model: Biology predisposes people to the disorder, but when combined with experience they develop APD.
Following male infants to age 18, the highest proportion who became violent offenders had, damage to Prefrontal Cortex and
Dissociative Identity Person‟s personality, behaviour, awareness, memory for events, etc. is split based on the adoption of separate identities.
Disorder/ Multiple Controversy:
Psychologists believe MPD is more common than people think and is a reaction to childhood trauma.
(MPD) Different personalities get created to cut-off painful memories of childhood sexual/physical abuse
The discovery of separate personalities occurs through hypnosis Or
Psychologists believe MPD is a false disorder actually created by clinical psychologists themselves through hypnosis.
Before 1980, MPD was highly rare; since the addition of the disorder to the DSM, many cases have been diagnosed.
The techniques used to “uncover” MPD often involve many hours of intense social pressure by a therapist (an authority figure) in an
attempt to force alternate personalities to come forward (similar to Milgram‟s Shock Experiment).
Participating in psychological therapy is a social situation that can cause people to think in ways that may create MPD symptoms.
Imagine yourself in psychological distress in search of an explanation and a “knowledgeable” therapist tells you:
1. You are probably in distress because you were severely abused as a child and don‟t remember.
2. You probably have alternative personalities protecting you from your memory from these events.
Now imagine the therapist does the following:
1. Under hypnosis, asks you to think about being abused during childhood and to look at photos to jog your memory.
2. Applies constant pressure for your alternate personalities to reveal themselves.
These aspects of the therapeutic setting are a formula for creating MPD in people because: