PSYC 1200 Lecture 8f
Chapter 15: Cognitive-Based Therapies
Cognitive-Based Approaches mental illness as a result of people not thinking right. Their thought processes lead them to develop opinions, which
Psychotherapies cause them to engage in appropriate behaviours that are poor in their level of functioning.
How much of the way you feel is because you are irrational or unrealistic in your thinking?
How much of your maladaptive behaviours are because your thinking is messed up?
Albert Ellis’ An aggressive approach to therapy, aimed at convincing people that the way they think is unrealistic.
Rational Emotive Client: “Everyone should like me.” Therapist: “What makes you so special? That’s Ridiculous!”
Behaviour Therapy Client: “I’m not successful unless I’m rich.” Therapist: “I’m successful and I’m not rich. You’re Ridiculous!”
(REBT) Client: “I’m a failure if this relationship doesn’t work out.” Therapist: “You must be scared to meet new people! That’s Ridiculous!”
Aaron Beck’s Version A less aggressive approach to therapy, aimed at encouraging people to think logically without telling them how unrealistic they are.
of Cognitive Therapy Client: “Everyone should like me.” Therapist: “Why do you think that? Do you like everyone?”
Client: “I’m not successful unless I’m rich.” Therapist: “Maybe, but can money alone grant happiness?”
Client: “I’m a failure if this relationship doesn’t work out” Therapist: “How so? Have you failed at forming relationships in the past?”
Negative Thinking and Blaming setbacks on personal inadequacies, focusing only on negative events, thinking negatively about the future, and drawing
Depression negative conclusions about personal worth all contribute to increased vulnerability to depression.
Chapter 15: Humanistic Therapies
Humanistic Therapies Based on the idea that low self-esteem prevents movement toward psychological health and high functioning (self-actualization),
and that by achieving confidence, people can cure their problems on their own.
Carl Rogers’ Client- Therapist’s job is to be empathetic, listen non-judgmentally and offer unconditional positive regard; they don’t really provide answers.
Centered (Non- Goal: people can improve their lives themselves if they feel accepted and valued.
Directive) Therapy e.g. They ask questions like so what do you think about that? How does that make your feel?
Existential Therapy Focusing on life’s big questions (e.g. why am I here?) in order to allow people to discover the meaning of the events in their life and
to give them a sense of being in charge of their destiny.
Goal: once you give someone a purpose, they won’t have any mental disorder anymore.
Family- Involving the entire family in therapy to examine the dynamic relationships of the disordered individual with their family.
Systems/Couples e.g. In a child with maladaptive behaviour, they would look at how the child feels in their relationships (i.e. child may not get enough
Therapy attention or there’s tension because parents are fighting), and try to resolve these problems.
Eclectic Approach Clinical psychologists borrow from any therapeutic method that is most effective for improving the client’s well-being.
Chapter 15: Psychological Therapy Validity and Effectiveness
Is Psychological In the use of psychological techniques much therapy is done without scientific evidence for its effectiveness and despite scientific
Treatment Scientific? evidence that indicates techniques are ineffective or even cause harm.
Often the use of psychological treatments is based on whether it “makes sense,” rather than empirical validation.
In the training of mental health practitioners:
There is little attempt to instill respect for scientific research as a basis for evaluating treatment methods.