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Lecture 2

PSYC 1200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Blind Experiment, Demand Characteristics, Social Desirability Bias

Course Code
PSYC 1200
Launa C.Leboe- Mcgowan

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Chapter 2: Principles of Scientific Research
Understand the key characteristics of scientific research
Know the different types of research designs
Learn importance of ethics in research
Become familiar with ways of analyzing research data
Characteristics of Scientific research
Objective, valid, reliable measurements
Objective: measurement of the variable is standardized (consistent)
Validity: measured what it is intended to measure. Ex. Ecological
Reliability: same results (consistent results)
Test-retest reliability
Alternate-forms reliability
Inter=rater reliability
The results of a research study are meaningful:
In other situations
For other individuals
Ideally results apply to the entire population or group that the researcher is
Realistically, results are applied to sample population
Controlled for bias
Research studies should minimize bias from both the researchers and
subjects/ participants
Bias can stem from:
Demand characteristics
Placebo effect
Social desirability
Expectancy effect
Hawthorne effect= changing your behaviour when you know
someone is watching
Ways to minimize bias
Anonymity: no personal identifiers of the participant/ subject
Confidentiality: limited individuals have access to participant/ subject
Blind procedures: single-blind study (participant doesn’t know but study
knows), double- blind study (participant and study doesn’t know)
Findings are shared:
Publication in peer-reviewed journals
Presentation at conferences
Sharing is important because:
Knowledge is enhanced, study can be used for further studies, study
can be replicated
Results can be replicated
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