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Lecture 7

PSYC 1200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Short-Term Memory, Sensory Memory, Baddeley'S Model Of Working Memory

Course Code
PSYC 1200
Launa C.Leboe- Mcgowan

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Chapter 7: Memory
Know the Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of memory
Understand working memory
Be able to explain encoding, retrieval, and forgetting
Know how memories are organized and constructed
Atkinson Shiffrin Model (1971)
Attention serves as a filter
Attention directed to only some of the incoming stimuli for further
processing (sent to STM)
Otherwise the info is not remembered
Memory Stores:
Sensory memory
Short- term memory
Long- term memory
Capacity of memory stores
Sensory memory:
Input is repetitive (occurs before recognition/identification)
Capacity is unlimited
Duration is .25-2secs.
Echoic sensory stores (auditory info 5 secs)
Iconic sensory store (visual info ½-1secs)
How do we know this? Sperling’s study
Sperling’s study (1960) whole- report technique
Display 12 letters for 50 milliseconds
Asked to report as many as they could
On average 4.5 letters remembered
Sperling’s study (1960): Partial-report technique
Display 12 letters
Tone produced
High pitch= top row
Medium pitch= middle row
Low pitch= bottom row
Asked to report as many letters as they could
People remembered 3 letters

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Short-term memory:
Input is attended
Up to 30 seconds, duration
Capacity is limited (7+/-2)
How do we know? Digit span/ memory span studies
Digit span/memory span task
Present a long sequence of items (letters) to participate
Participants recall the items in the order they were presented
often able to recall string of 7 items
Capacity of short-term memory
Miller (1956)
Chunking items involves combining items into groups
By chunking, more items can be stored in short-term memory
How many items can be combined to form a chunk? Varies from person. De Groot
Long-term memory:
Input is rehearsed, imaged, or coded (represented as semantic associations)
Capacity is unlimited
Minutes- years (unlimited) duration
Declarative memories (explicit)
Semantic memories
Episodic memories
Nondeclarative memories (implicit)
Serial position effect
Rundus (1971) experiment:
Study phase:
Nouns presented one at at time (20 times per list)
Presented each word for 5 seconds
Rehearse the words aloud during 5 sec. intervals
Test phase:
Free recall
Better recall of items at the beginning and end of list
U-shaped recall curve known as serial position effect
Primacy effect: better recall of items at the beginning of the list
Opportunity to rehearse earlier items more often than later items
More rehearsal greater probability items enter LTM for retrieval
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