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PSYC 1200
Debra Lall

PSYC1200 September 11,2013 What is Psychology? -to understand human behaviour Why? -root of problems & curiosity Psychology: scientific study of the behaviour of individual and their mental processes. Scientific Method: set of procedures for gathering and interpreting objective info w/ minimal error and yields dependable generalizations. Behavioural Data: reports of observations about behaviours and conditions under which they occur -researchers choose appropriate level of analysis -measures of behaviour data must be objective Explain What Will Happen: descriptions describe what happened explanations look to explain "how" behaviour works -internal factors ex: gene, motivation, intelligence -external factors ex: situational factor Predict What Will Happen: -a closer look at scientific prediction -understand how events relates to another -what mechanisms link to events -a close look at casual prediction -specifies conditions under which behaviours will change Controlling What Will Happen: -to make things happen or not -ways to improve the quality of life -preventions -intervention ex: EFFORT internal unstable controllable Evolution of Modern Psychology Historical Foundations "Psychology has a long history but a very short past." (H. Ebbinghaus, 1908) School of Structuralism School of Functionalism School of Structuralism -contents of the mind and concept of "reductionism" Wundt: Father of Scientific Psychology His question: How can the mind be studied? -opened the first University-based Psychology lab -studied reaction times Discovery: mental processes takes time Field today: Cognitive Psychology Titchener's goal of structuralism and the problem of introspection introspection: to look forward All elements of the mind can be tied to sensory experience -quality -intensity -duration -clarity Discovery: nearly all methods failed Private technique to individuals PSCY1200 September 13,2013 Stereotype Threat -fear of being judge negatively or fear negative stereotype The phi phenomenon promoted Gestalt psychology Gestalt: the whole in conscious experience whole objects and scene take precedence component parts. Main Players: Wilhelm Wundt: -first psychological experimental laboratory Edward Titchener -brought structuralism to America introspection Max Wertheimer -concept of Gestalt psychology as an alternative to structuralism *mind w/ a PURPOSE (William James) Functionalism -the function of mind and behaviour in an organism's interactions w/ the environment John Dewey -American Functionalism and progressive education *Charles Darwin was very influential in psychology William James' functionalism founded modern psychology -Main Objective: to understand the mind's functions, not its structures -influenced by Darwin -true pioneer in psychology -students included Edward Thorndike and Mary Calkins Legacy of Structuralism and Functionalism -Psychology examine both the structure and function of behaviour -how you do something may be important as why you do it -set up context for modern psychology to flourish Seven Psychological Perspective 1) Psychodynamic Perspective Key Figure: Sigmund Freud -behaviour is explained in terms on inherited instincts, biological drive and attempts to resolve internal conflicts -focus is on the unconscious 2) Behavioural Perspective Key Figures: John Watson, B.F. Skinner -environment controls behaviour -primary concerned w/ observable behaviour that can be objectively recorded -principles from animals generalizable to humans -Legacy: rigour and defined variables 3) Humanistic Perspective Key Figures: Carl Rogers,Abraham Maslow -emphasis an individual's inherent capacity of making rational choices and developing to their maximum potential -self-actualization -unconditional positive regard 4) cognitive Perspective -human thought and the process of knowing and thinking -behaviour occurs because people think Piaget and Chomsky's ideas influenced the emergence of cognitive psychology -the study of people's ability to acquire, organize, remember and use information the acquired Piaget: reasoning in children Chomsky: language is a set of mental rules 5) Biological perspective -behaviour is explained in terms of underlying physical structures and biochemical processes Much of psychology has moved into the realm of neuroscience in the past decade -behavioural neuroscience -cognitive neuroscience -social neuroscience -influence of Donald Hebb 6) Evolutionary Perspective -biology and experience -the biggest and most persistent issue in psychology revolves around the relative contributions of biology and experience the Nature vs. Nurture Debate -Natural Selection 7) Sociocultural Perspective -cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behaviour *See Table 1.1 for Perspectives' Summary* What Psychologists Do? -engage in psychological inquiry -formulate questions to be research -conduct various forms of research -apply psychological conducts Other info... G. Stanley Hall -founded theAPAin 1892 Women in Psychology: Margaret Washburn -first female to earn a doctorate degree (Ph.D.) in psychology -first female to be president ofAPA PSYC1200 September 20,2013 Chapter 2: Research methods in Psychology -the research process -psychological measurement -ethical issues in human and animal research Objectives: -explain principle steps of scientific method -explain hypothesis and theories -identify major types of scientific research method -control of independent variables -explain meaning of reliability, selective of subjects -discuss problems of subject/experimenter expectations -discuss correlation research studies -discuss humane and ethical treatment of living subjects -discuss value of cross-cultural research -explain use of statistics -explain the concept of statistical significance and its use of determining the difference between two group means. Step One: -initial phase of research, in which observations beliefs, info and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenon -theory -an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena -psychologist use theories to formulate questions Concept of Determinism -the doctrine that all events - physical, behavioural, mental - are "determined" by a specific casual factors Step Two: -develop a hypothesis -hypothesis or hypotheses -a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two or more events or variables. Step Three: -use scientific method to design the study Scientific Method: -set of procedures use for gathering information to make an error-free data -its goal is objectivity AChallenge of Objectivity Observer Bias: -distortion of evidence due to personal motives and expectation of the viewer The Remedy for Observer Bias -Standardization -a set of uniform procedures for treating participants -Operational Definition -defined in terms of specific operation or procedure used to determine its presence -all variables in a research study must be given operational variable Research Variables -are factors in experimental setting that change in amount and kind 1) Independent variable -manipulated by the researcher -casual part of the relationship 2) Dependent variable -affected by the independent variable Experimental Method -researchers manipulate an independent variable to observe change in the dependent variable Challenge of Objectivity -alternative explanations to research -can result from *confounding variables *expectancy effects *placebo effect -more alternate explanations = less confidence for initial hypothesis Confounding Variable -another variable present will make it difficult to make a conclusion -two or more independent variable affecting the dependent variable -makes a confusion in the date Expectancy Effects -researcher interacts w/ participants and affects their reaction or outcome ex: treatment of researcher to the subjects wh
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