Oc78 Children who are frequently angry or fearful are more prone to depression Children who are capable of greater effortful control as three and fouryearolds have higher scores on measures of working memory and, as schoolage children, are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD Extraversion and prosocial behaviors Parental control and behavior problems Positive emotions and coping with stress Young adolescents who are temperamentally cheerful apparently are less affected by life stressors and consequently are less likely to drink, smoke, or use drugs The Growth of Attachment According to evolutionary psychology, many human behaviors represent successful adaptation to the environment. According to bowlby, children who form an attachment to an adult that is, an enduring socialemotional relationship are more likely to survive. Bowlbys 4 Phases of attachment Preattachment (birth 68 weeks) recognize mothers smell and sound, which sets the stage for forging an attachment relationship Attachment (68 weeks 68 months) babies begin to behave differently in the presence of familiar faces and unfamiliar faces. Primary caregiver = person they can depend on True attachment (68 months 18 months) most infants have singled out the attachment figureusually the mother as special individual. Now stable socialemotional base. Attachment relationship has been established Reciprocal relationships (18 months on) infants growing cognitive and language skills and their accumulated experience with their primary caregiver make infants better able to act as true parents in the attachment relationship.