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Lecture 9

PSYC 2290 Lecture 9: Language and Communication

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2290
Professor
Jocelyn B.Proulx

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Chapter 9 Language and Communication
Elements of language
- It has arbitrary units and is therefore symbolic
- It is structured and meaningful
- It shows displacement
- It is characterized by generativity
Components of Language
- Phonology sounds of the language
o Phonemes are the unique sounds within a language
- Morphology rules of meaning
o Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning
o Boud orphees is soethig lie u, i, ig
They mean something when they are on other words
- Semantics words and their meaning
o Definitions from the dictionary
- Grammar rules of the structure of language
o All about how that language is put together
o Syntax to specify rules about how to combine words
- Pragmatics the use of language to communicate effectively
o To communicate, to guide ourselves through difficult tasks, to formulate ideas, etc.
o Different use depending on who your audience is
Perceiving speech
- Phonemes distinguished at 1 month
- 1 year distinguish phonemes native to their own language
- Less able to determine sounds not from their own language
- Pay more attention to words they often hear and to words at ends and beginnings of sentences
(7-8 months)
o Pay attention to where you stretch your syllables
- Infant directed speech adult speaks slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and
loudness
o Vary pitch, loudness, speak slowly, watch mouth and try to imitate
o Facilitates language development in children
- Phonetic category learning
o Different language sounds and syllables, pattern and how language sounds
o Imitate what they have in their heads already
o Tune in to the patterns used in the language that is being spoken by the people around
them
The beginning of Speech
- Cooing at 2 months
o Vowel sound
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
- Babbling
o Start very soon after
o Consonant and vowel
- 8-11 months stress syllables and change pitch
- Intonation rise and fall of pitch
- 6 months try to reproduce sounds they hear
- Right side of aies’ ouths ill oe ore he the are talkig tha he the are just
making noises (adults do this too)
First Words
- 1 year first words appear
- Name concepts they are familiar with
- Made up words
- By 15 months, learning 2 to 3 new words a week
- Naming explosion at about 18 months, children learn new words at a very fast rate
Words and Symbols
- Use of gestures
o Before they start saying the word sometimes
o Pointing
o Children that use gestures are typically less frustrated because they are communicating
more clearly
o Supplement to language, not a replacement for language
- Holophrase using a gesture and a word together to represent a two-word sentence
Learning the meaning of words
- Fast-mapping -ability to connect new words to their meanings
- Parents actions and verbalizations
o Intersubjectivity: both paying attention to the same things
- Whole object constraint
o The rule that if a parent is reading/talking about something and they refer to an object,
the child assumes that the word refers to the whole thing, not just a part of the object
- Mutual exclusivity constraint
o If soethig alread has a ae, ou a’t gie it a differet ae
- Principle of contrast
o Everything you talk about in the book or life has a different word/sound
o Assue that if ou ade a soud that the do’t alread ko, ou ust e talkig
aout soethig that the do’t alread ko
- Attention to specificity
o Pa attetio to ords like is ad a
- Attention to shapes
o Facilitate naming things and contribute to fast-mapping
- Development of cognitive skills
o Once children have goals, they want to talk about it
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
Chapter 9 Language and Communication Elements of language It has arbitrary units and is therefore symbolic It is structured and meaningful It shows displacement It is characterized by generativity Components of Language Phonology sounds of the language o Phonemes are the unique sounds within a language Morphology rules of meaning o Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning o Bound morphemes is something lie un, im, ing They mean something when they are on other words Semantics words and their meaning o Definitions from the dictionary Grammar rules of the structure of language o All about how that language is put together o Syntax to specify rules about how to combine words Pragmatics the use of language to communicate effectively o To communicate, to guide ourselves through difficult tasks, to formulate ideas, etc. o Different use depending on who your audience is Perceiving speech Phonemes distinguished at 1 month 1 year distinguish phonemes native to their own language Less able to determine sounds not from their own language Pay more attention to words they often hear and to words at ends and beginnings of sentences (78 months) o Pay attention to where you stretch your syllables Infant directed speech adult speaks slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness o Vary pitch, loudness, speak slowly, watch mouth and try to imitate o Facilitates language development in children Phonetic category learning o Different language sounds and syllables, pattern and how language sounds o Imitate what they have in their heads already o Tune in to the patterns used in the language that is being spoken by the people around them The beginning of Speech Cooing at 2 months o Vowel sound
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