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Lecture 9

PSYC 2290 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Cochlear Implant, Sign Language, Mutual Exclusivity

5 pages45 viewsWinter 2017

Course Code
PSYC 2290
Jocelyn B.Proulx

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Chapter 9 Language and Communication
Elements of language
- It has arbitrary units and is therefore symbolic
- It is structured and meaningful
- It shows displacement
- It is characterized by generativity
Components of Language
- Phonology sounds of the language
o Phonemes are the unique sounds within a language
- Morphology rules of meaning
o Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning
o Boud orphees is soethig lie u, i, ig
They mean something when they are on other words
- Semantics words and their meaning
o Definitions from the dictionary
- Grammar rules of the structure of language
o All about how that language is put together
o Syntax to specify rules about how to combine words
- Pragmatics the use of language to communicate effectively
o To communicate, to guide ourselves through difficult tasks, to formulate ideas, etc.
o Different use depending on who your audience is
Perceiving speech
- Phonemes distinguished at 1 month
- 1 year distinguish phonemes native to their own language
- Less able to determine sounds not from their own language
- Pay more attention to words they often hear and to words at ends and beginnings of sentences
(7-8 months)
o Pay attention to where you stretch your syllables
- Infant directed speech adult speaks slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and
o Vary pitch, loudness, speak slowly, watch mouth and try to imitate
o Facilitates language development in children
- Phonetic category learning
o Different language sounds and syllables, pattern and how language sounds
o Imitate what they have in their heads already
o Tune in to the patterns used in the language that is being spoken by the people around
The beginning of Speech
- Cooing at 2 months
o Vowel sound
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- Babbling
o Start very soon after
o Consonant and vowel
- 8-11 months stress syllables and change pitch
- Intonation rise and fall of pitch
- 6 months try to reproduce sounds they hear
- Right side of aies’ ouths ill oe ore he the are talkig tha he the are just
making noises (adults do this too)
First Words
- 1 year first words appear
- Name concepts they are familiar with
- Made up words
- By 15 months, learning 2 to 3 new words a week
- Naming explosion at about 18 months, children learn new words at a very fast rate
Words and Symbols
- Use of gestures
o Before they start saying the word sometimes
o Pointing
o Children that use gestures are typically less frustrated because they are communicating
more clearly
o Supplement to language, not a replacement for language
- Holophrase using a gesture and a word together to represent a two-word sentence
Learning the meaning of words
- Fast-mapping -ability to connect new words to their meanings
- Parents actions and verbalizations
o Intersubjectivity: both paying attention to the same things
- Whole object constraint
o The rule that if a parent is reading/talking about something and they refer to an object,
the child assumes that the word refers to the whole thing, not just a part of the object
- Mutual exclusivity constraint
o If soethig alread has a ae, ou a’t gie it a differet ae
- Principle of contrast
o Everything you talk about in the book or life has a different word/sound
o Assue that if ou ade a soud that the do’t alread ko, ou ust e talkig
aout soethig that the do’t alread ko
- Attention to specificity
o Pa attetio to ords like is ad a
- Attention to shapes
o Facilitate naming things and contribute to fast-mapping
- Development of cognitive skills
o Once children have goals, they want to talk about it
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