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Lecture 14

PSYC 2440 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Escape Response, ReinforcementPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2440
Professor
All
Lecture
14

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PSYCH 2440 – Behavior Modification Principles – Lecture 14 - Chapter 14
Chapter 14 – Establishing Behavior by Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
Escape Conditioning
-Negative reinforcement
-The removal of certain stimuli (aversive stimuli) immediately after the occurrence of a
behavior will increase the likelihood of that behavior
-Similar to punishment in that both involve the use of aversive stimulus
-Differs from punishment procedurally in terms of antecedents and consequences of
behavior:
oPunishment – aversive stimulus not present prior to behavior/response
Decreases the likelihood of a target response
oEscape conditioning aversive stimulus must be present prior to an escape
response
Increases the likelihood of a target response
Avoidance conditioning
-Disadvantage of Escape Conditioning the aversive stimulus must be present for the
desired response to occur
oEscape conditioning is not a final contingency for maintaining behavior
oEscape conditioning is preparatory training for avoidance conditioning
-Principle of Avoidance Conditioning
oA contingency in which a behavior prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring
thereby resulting in an increase in the frequency of that behavior
-Escape vs Avoidance:
Escape Avoidance
Uses aversive stimulus Uses aversive stimulus
Increases likelihood of a behavior Increases likelihood of a behavior
Aversive stimulus has already occurred Prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring
at all
Warning Stimulus
-conditioned aversive stimulus
-A stimulus that signals a forthcoming
aversive stimulus
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