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Lecture 1

PSYC 2660 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Corporal Punishment, Sport Psychology, Classical Conditioning

Course Code
PSYC 2660
Garry Martin

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Assignment 1
Unit 1
3) Distinguish between covert and overt behaviour. Give example of each not in this chapter.
-Overt behaviors can be easily monitored by observers and covert are activities that cannot
be readily monitored by observers. An example of overt behavior is jumping rope, and an
example of covert activity is being scared and nervous before an exam
7) What is behavioural deficit? Give two sport examples
-Behavioural deficit is too little behavior of a particular type. Examples are if a basketball
player is not practicing all the drills, and if a soccer player not arriving on time and
forgetting his shin guards
8) What is behavioral excess? Give two sport examples
-Behavioral excess is too much behaviour of a particular type. Examples are if a volleyball
player continually challenges the referees calls, and if a basketball player thinks too many
nervous thoughts before taking their foul shots
9) For what two reasons does this book place emphasis on identifying specific behavioral deficits
and excesses rather than using general summary labels for behavior.
-First, regardless of the labels attached to an athlete it is behavioral deficits of behavioral
excesses that causes athletes to seek help from a sport psychologist. Second, specific
procedures are available that can be applied at practices and competitions to overcome
behavioral deficits and excesses
13) Define stimuli? Give three sport examples
-Stimuli is the antecedents and consequences that are typically manipulated. Examples
include deciding where to kick a ball, deciding if they’re going to catch the ball or not,
and deciding which player to pass the ball to
15) What are three things not included in behavior analysis procedures?
-The three things are traditional psychology and personality assessment, hypnosis, and the
use of drugs
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19) List six characteristics of behavioral sport psychology
-The first characteristic is a strong emphasis on defining an athlete’s goals and/or
problems in terms of behavior that can be measured in some way, and using changes in
the behavioral measure as the best indicator of the extent to which the athlete is being
-The second characteristic is that its treatment procedures and techniques are ways of
rearranging antecedents and consequences of an athlete’s behavior to help the athlete
perform to his or her full potential
-A third characteristic is that behavioral psychology treatment procedures and techniques
based on the principles and procedures of respondent conditioning and operant
-A fourth characteristic is that it interprets cognitive techniques in terms of operant and
respondent conditioning of covert and overt behaviors
-A fifth characteristic is that behavioral sport psychology researchers have commonly
used single-subject research designs
-A sixth characteristic is that it places high value on accountability for everyone involved
in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a sport psychology program
Unit 2
1) What target behaviors for the swimmers were selected by Coach Keedwell?
-Target behaviors selected were failing to execute a racing turn and stopping momentarily
during a set
4) Briefly list four general topics that might be discussed by a sport psychologist in the first
“session” with an athlete
-Explaining confidentiality.
-Briefly describing your background.
-Discussing sport psychology.
-Clarifying misconceptions about sport psychology.
7) What is an across-sport behavioral checklist?
- An across-sport behavioral checklist lists performance aspects of practices and/or
competitions that apply to a number of different sports. It is designed to assess an
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athlete’s current physical and mental behaviors that make up his/her competition
8) What is a within-sport behavioral checklist? What are the benefits of such checklists, and how
do they differ from traditional psychological assessments?
-A within-sport behavioral checklist lists performance aspects of practices and/or
competitions for a particular sport. Its benefits include providing a quick and reasonably
thorough identification of areas in which the athlete performs well, and areas in need of
improvement. Another advantage is the increased face validity in the eyes of the athlete
involved, enhancing rapport and lending credibility to the consultant. They differ from
traditional psychological assessments because within-sport behavioral checklists do not
have norms and are not designed to measure character or personality traits.
11) What is a slump in sports? Describe an example that is not in this chapter, and that illustrates
all three aspects of the definition
-An unexpected decline in athletic performance that occurs for a sufficient length of time
and can be of serious concern to the athlete and coach
-An example of a slump could be if a gymnast is continually making mistakes and
performing more worse each time and has been continually messing up for a lot of
16) Briefly describe four strategies for monitoring target behaviors
-Direct observation of a single behavior: an athlete’s target behavior is directly monitored
by an observer.
-Behavioral checklists to record multiple behaviors: consultants or researchers design
checklists that ebable observers to monitor multiple behaviors of an individual.
-Athlete selfmonitoring: an effective way in which the athlete tracks his/her own
behavior of interest.
-Videotaping of target behaviors: using videotapes to assess the strengths and
weaknesses of their oppponents, or videotaping of targetbehaviors of athletes for sport
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