SOC 3391 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Cattle In Religion And Mythology, Sexual Assault, Natural Experiment

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3 Feb 2013
Postmodernism has many parents, teachers, politicians, religious leaders, and not a few university
professors worried.
Given the eclectic mixing of cultural elements from different times and places, the erosion of authority,
and the decline of consensus around core values, how can we make binding decisions? How can we
govern? How can we teach children and adolescents the difference between right and wrong? How can
we transmit accepted literary tastes and artistic standards from one generation to the next?
These are the kinds of issues that plague people in positions of authority today.
Slide 5
All animals take from nature to subsist, and apes may sometimes use rocks to break other objects, or
walking sticks to steady themselves as they cross fast-flowing streams.
But only humans are intelligent and agile enough to manufacture tools and use them to produce
everything from food to satellites; in this sense, production is a uniquely human activity.
Slide 7
This line of thought gave rise to the field of cultural studies, which overlaps the sociology of culture
(Griswold, 1992; Long, 1997; Spillman, 2002).
Slide 12
Image: Many Westerners find the Indian practice of cow worship bizarre; however, cow worship performs
a number of useful economic functions and is in that sense entirely rational.
By viewing cow worship exclusively as an outsider (or, for that matter, exclusively as an insider), we fail to
see its rational core.
Slide 14
By analyzing how people cooperate and produce norms and values, we can learn much about what
distinguishes one culture from another.
Slide 15
Folkways are norms that specify social preferences, whereas mores are norms that specify social
Incest is one of the most widespread taboos.
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Slide 2
First, children learn to use language and other symbols by imitating important people in their lives, such
as their mother and father.
Second, children pretend to be other people.; that is, they use their imaginations to role-play in games,
such as “house,”
“school,” and doctor.”
Third, by the time they reach the age of about seven, children learn to play complex games requiring that
they simultaneously take the role of several other people.
Once a child can think in this complex way, she can begin the fourth stage in the development of the self.
This involves taking the role of what Mead called the generalized other.
Years of experience may teach an individual that other people, employing the cultural standards of their
society, usually regard her as funny or temperamental or intelligent.
A person’s image of these cultural standards and how they are applied to her is what Mead meant by the
generalized other.
Slide 4
Socialization is the process by which people learn their culture; they do so by (1) entering and disengaging
from a succession of roles, and (2) becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others.
Slide 5
Without childhood socialization, most of our human potential remains undeveloped.
Slide 6
In other words, our feelings about who we are depend largely on how we see ourselves evaluated by
others; just as we see our physical body reflected in a mirror, so we see our social selves reflected in
people’s gestures and reactions to us (Cooley, 1902).
The implications of Cooley’s argument are intriguing. Consider, for example, that the way other people
judge us helps determine whether we develop a positive or negative self-concept.
Among other things, having a negative self-concept is associated with low achievement in school and
post-secondary institutions (Hamachek, 1995).
Slide 7
George Herbert Mead (1934) took up and developed the idea of the looking-glass self.
Like Freud, Mead noted that a subjective and impulsive aspect of the self is present from birth; Mead
called it simply the I.
Again, like Freud, Mead argued that a repository of culturally approved standards emerges as part of the
self during social interaction; Mead called this objective, social component of the self the me.
However, while Freud focused on the denial of the id’s impulses as the mechanism that generates the
self’s objective side, Mead drew attention to the unique human capacity to “take the role of the other” as
the source of the me.
Slide 8
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