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Classical Studies
Leonard Curchin

CLASSICAL STUDIES 100Part 1 Class notes Part 2 Chapter readings notes Part 3 Exam aids The Classical HeroHero mythsGreek Myths Heroes are mortal Exciting plotspeople are able to relate more to people to heroes that are more realThey have more entertaining plots than myths about godsWhy they are credible more so than godsHuman or half humanLinked to historical eventsie the Trojan war or the search for the golden fleeceCharacteristics of the heroHe is human in form and super human in his abilities and his exploitsHe is a warrior lover and ruler and each character had certain traits or character flawsHe is larger than life and lager than any type of classification than we can labelAlthough the similarities are flows Male though they are women not as great macho heman as men he must reach his goal Saved from death exiled as a child Cleaverwise has to use this characteristic to overcome their challengesPiousmeans to give honor to the gods and to his elders hero usually had the support of a patron god or goddesshas to stay in good terms and sometimes is partly a descended from a god and has a divinity about themProud hubris if you are too proud then you are divinely punishedGreeks saw that being proud was not a bad thing as long as it is done within reason and Greeks believed if you were not proud you had something to hide sometimes they exceed what is proper behavior for a human and then they are punishedNoble noble in character and is of noble birth frequency the son of someone high in status ie king or queen might be an illegitimate son but still noble ancestry Handsome he is also a good lover and ultimate person in bed Temperamental have busts of temper and sometimes cannot control their emotionsCharacteristics of hero myths Quest it is what the hero has to achieve might not be a material quest ie search for truth but has trials and tribulations that the hero has to overcome does not take place in an ordinary world it is an ideal world Historical context all of the stories are have to have taken place at a certain time all take place in the Mycenaean age between16001150 BCGeographic varietytravels to many lands either real or imaginary might even go to the underworld the poet has to describe the exotic character of the different geographical places By him doing this it amplifies the hero and the storyTricksweapons in achieve his quest he has to be able to use tricks sneaky or has a weapon because along the way he is either challenged and has to overcome his opponentsContact with death he comes up against creatures who are constantly trying to kill him where the hero has to bypass them people are always dying either people around him ie his friend Conflicts with others he might over place a king ie might be in conflict with his family sometimes accidently kill a friend or family member the hero might be killed in the end sent into exileComplicated love life may have to avoid the charms of a woman may have to rescue a fair maiden he might betray a girlfriend wife Oedipus was a prince o Born in Corinth flees to ThebesFlees because he is told by an oracle that he is going too Kills fatherhe ends up getting into a fight with a man who he kills but it was his father marries mothero Answers the riddles of the Sphinx known as a monster o The gods sends a plague because of the crimes of the cityo He is exiled by his children o Quest find criminal himself Jason and the Argonautso Quest golden fleece guarded by a dragon in a garden at the east end of the black seaHe calls all heroes to come with him and sail on a ship called the Argos o Voyage to black seao Love affair with the kings daughter he takes the girl back to Greece to make her his wife but eventually leaves her Oresteso Son of Agamemnon general who attacked Troy o Agamemnon is killed by Clytemnestra his wife for sacrificing their daughtero Orestes he loves his father but hates his mother kills Clytemnestra he is then punished by the godso Pursued by Furies eventually rescued by the godsAchilleso Invulnerable dipped in Styx magic river in the underworld except his heel was not dipped in it o Quarrels with Agamemnono Best friend is killed by Hectoro Kills Hector but shot in the heal with an arrow Odysseus one with the ship and wax in his ear o Invents the Trojan horseo Ten year voyage homeo Kills the suitors men who are seeking the wife and this Odysseus is dead with the help of his son kills them all Heracles o Strong because the son of Zeus god but mad gets mad and then kills his children o Twelve labors because he killed all his children has to bring back the 3 headed god that guards the underworldo Becomes a godTheseus o Athenian heroo Fights monsterso Kills the minotaur falls in love with the kings daughter and dumps her Perseus o Sent to kill Medusa o Special weapons invisibility cap winged shoes o Rescues a princess from a monsterBellerophono Rejects queen o Quest to kill chimera o Uses flying horseEarly ChristianityMust know Origin in Judaism Single absolute creatoromonotheismGods chosen people o Political implications o Development of the idea of MessiahReligious saviorPolitical saviorMilitary savior Oldest imageso Mandylion of EdessaLegend 3040 AD sto 1 mention of legend Eusebius ca 325 o First mention of object 525Catacombs under RomeRDtho Late 3 early 4 centuryEarly Christianity sources Oldest historical testimony Pauls letters o 23 decades after Jesus deatho Paul not one of Jesus original followers Suetonius on Nero4 Gospels o Matthew Mark Luke John All proclamations of faith not historical records o Consequenceobjective history of earliest Christianity ie Jesus life impossibleIssues of PerceptionsSelf perception o Earliest Christians JewsreformersConversion to Judaism necessary
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