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PSYC496AV (34)
M.Segu (34)
Lecture 13

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DIATHESIS STRESS AND BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL : INTEGRATIVE PARADIGMS: THE DIATHESIS-STRESS PARADIGM: diathesis-stress: links biological, psychological and environmental factors. focuses on the interaction between a predisposition toward disease – the diathesis – and environmental, or life, disturbances – the stress. Diathesis refers most precisely to a constitutional predisposition toward illness, but the term may be extended to any characteristic or set of characteristics that increases a person’s chance of developing a disorder. Possessing the disorder increases a person’s risk of developing it but does not guarantee that the disorder will develop. IT is the stress part of diathesis-stress that accounts for how a diathesis may be translated into an actual disorder. psychopathology is unlikely to result from any single factor. A genetically transmitted diathesis may be necessary for some disorders, but it is embedded in a network of other factors that also play a part. THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PARADIGM: biopsychosocial paradigm: biological, psychological, and social factors are conceptualized as different levels of analysis or subsystems within the paradigm. FIGURE 2.9 The actual variables and the degree of influence of the variables from the different domains typically differ from disorder to disorder. Protection from risk factors, or the ability to bounce back in the face of adversity, is referred to as resilience. Protective factors can occur within the individual (eg, perseverance and courage in a child who suffers poverty; the ability to think and act independently in an adolescent whose parent is diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder) but can also reside in the environment (e.g, a close relationship with one parent, support from a caring teacher). TABLE 2.2 p.65, 2.3. A history of maltreatment in childhood is acknowledged as a consistent and strong predictor of subsequent emotional difficulties. A provocative study of maltreatment and subsequent aggression found that maltreated and subsequent aggression found that maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) were substantially less likely to display anti-social behaviour as adults. This is a classic example of a gene-environment interaction. Psychosocial factors: Socio-economic status And Poverty: extreme poverty and low socio-economic status (SES) confer risk for increased rates of mental illness. This is a tricky issue to some extent because profound mental illness . This is a tricky issue to some extent because profound mental illness can limit socio-economic opportunities, so it is important, wherever possible, to examine the role of SES in longitudinal research that can establish that low SES preceded the onset of mental health problems. Further, SES might be closely related to relevant “third variables”, including job status, education, perceived stress, neighbourhood violence and crime, social support, psysical health... Children with higher SES have less severe internalizing and externalizing mental health symptoms. Different etiological pathways were identified for those with low vs high SES backgrounds. The key factor for those with low SES was chronic maternal stress during the child’s infancy. The key factor for those from a high SES was a parental history of depression along with a family history of psychopathology. Cuttrona et al focused on how a poor neighbourhood escalates levels of depression. They iden
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