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Lecture 5

AGRC 112 Lecture 5: Ag 112 Oilseeds

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AGRC 112
Takaya Kunio

Oilseeds Fats and Oils - Fats are solids at room temperature and oil are liquids - They are edible or inedible - Some plants are edible but humans can not eat them due to digestibility - Vegetable and animal sources - Our focus —> edible vegetable oils - The principal animal fats are: - Tallow, lard, butterfat - concerns with respect to saturated fatty acids - Marine oils - consumption recommended due to content of long chain, polyunsaturated ( omega-3) fatty acids The chemistry of fats and oils - Edible fats and oils are mixtures of triacylglyerols (triglycerides, TGs) - Triglycerides consist of glycerol linked ( esterifies) to three fatty acids (FA) molecules - Triglycerides may be simple or mixed Fatty acids - Hundreds exist in nature - a dozen or so are important in vegetable oils, 5 or 6 predominate in most edible oils - Consists of unbranched linear chain, 2 to 23 carbons in length with an acid ( carboxyl) group at one end - Chains may be saturated or unsaturated, contain none, one or several C=C double bonds - In most polyunsaturated fatty acids, double bonds are separated by CH2 groups ( non- conjugated) - The conjugated ones will go rancid faster - The non conjugated has better oxidation Melting points of fatty acids - Melting point increases as the carbon chain length increases - Melting point decreases as the number of double bonds ( degree of unsaturated ) increases - Effect of unsaturation on melting point is much greater then that of chain length - Linolenic acid will go rancid faster because it is not stable so it will oxidize and attract oxygen faster Fats and oils - Liquid oils contain predominantly unsaturated fatty acids - Solid fats contain predominantly saturated fatty acids or a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - Lipids with a larger proportion of unsaturated fatty acids are more susceptible to thermal and oxidative breakdown Fatty acids - C=c bonds are in cis co
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