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Lecture 2

AGRC 112 Lecture 2: Ag 112 Biodeisel

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AGRC 112
Takaya Kunio

Biodiesel - Mixture of methyl esters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oils - Prepared by alkali catalyzed transesterification of oil with methanol - Yields a mixture of methyl esters and glycerol ( glycerin ) - Rapid reaction , 98% reaction efficiency end product must be refined - Soybean oil, palm oil, and canola/ rapeseed oil are conn only used as the feedstock - Other low grade oils, used frying oils - Oils with a lower degree of unsaturated are preferred due to their greater oxidative stability - Oils with a higher degree of unsaturated are better suited for colder climates due to their lower melting points - Methyl esters of fatty acids are also used as solvents Palm oil - Derived by pressing the fruit of the oil palm, which is widely grown in Southeast Asia and Africa - Rich in palmitic acid - Solid fraction from palm oil is used as the solid fat component in margarine and shortenings - Use in biodiesel is growing - sustainability issues, food vs fuel issues - The seed / nut of the palm fruit - Palm kernel oil ( PKO ) is extracted by prepress - solvent extraction - Fatty acid profile of PKO is virtually identical to that of coconut oil - C12:0 ( lauric acid ) from PKO and coconut oil is used for the synthesis of detergent and surfactants ( such as sodium laurel sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphur ) which are popularly used in shortenings, confectionery fats, detergents and shampoos Soybeans - World most important oilseed - Second most important source of vegetable oil - Seed contains 22% oil, 40% protein - Utilization of oil - cooking and frying, food ingredient, margarines, shortening, biodesiel, oleochemicals - Gums ( phospholipids ) are a source of lecithin, which is recovered from oil by washing with hot water - Is easily delude - results in a low fibre, high protein and high lysine meal - The meal sets the standard for high protein feed ingredient - Desolventization of the meal included a severe heat treatment to inactivate trypsin inhibitors - Meal utilization - feed, food Soybean oil - Distillate from deodorization is a source of sterols and tocopherols - Sterols used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals as food additives - Tocopherols - vitamin E activity, antioxidants Canola - Oil contains less then 2% prussic acid compared to 45% in rapeseed from which it was developed - Erucic acid was thought to cause heat abnormalities in young animals - Modern cultivars are double low - low in both erucic acid and glucosinolate. The latter are toxic / anti-nutritional sulphur compounds - Seed cannot be delude effectively prior to oil extraction - Meal is high in fibre, low in protein, good balanc
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