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Lecture

Biol 120 Bioenergetics (Lecture notes_2012 - 2013T1).doc

16 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 120
Professor
Yangdong Wei

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Description
BIOENERGETICSChapter7and8ITheworkingcellEnergyEnergyconversioninlivingcellschemicalreactionsenergyelectroncarriersenzymesandmembranesIIEnergyderivedfromfoodCellularRespirationMitochondrionGlycolysisKrebscycletricarboxylicacidcyclecitricacidcycleElectrontransportchainChemiosmosisoxidativephosphorylationIIIEnergyderivedfromlightPhotosynthesisChloroplastPhotosystemlightreactionElectrontransportchainChemiosmosisphotophosphorylationCalvinBensoncyclecarbonfixationITHEWORKINGCELLITHEWORKINGCELLWhatisEnergyCapacitytodoworkorheatoranythingthatcanbetransformedintoheatFormsofEnergyEnergyexistsindifferentformsheatlightelectricmechanicalchemicalnuclearetcEnergycanbeconvertedfromoneformtoanotherAlllifedependsonsuchconversionKineticenergytheenergyofmotionortheformofenergythatisactuallydoingworkKineticenergyinheatingduetomovementofmoleculesinmatterFallingwaterfromawaterfallhaskineticenergybecauseofthemassofwaterinmotionPotentialenergyaformofstoredenergythecapacitytoperformworkWaterbehindadamhaspotentialenergyduetopositionatahigherlevelTheenergycanbemadetodoworkwhenwaterisallowedtoflowtoalowerlevelFossilfuelshydrocarbonslikegasolineorcarbonlikecoalalsohavestoredpotentialenergychemicalenergywhichisreleasedwhentheyareburnedinacombustionengine1ChemicalenergyallchemicalmoleculesstoreenergyThedifferentmoleculeshavevariouspotentialenergyduetothearrangementoftheiratomsPotentialenergyduetoparticulararrangementofatomsinenergyrichfoodlikesugarsandfatscanbereleasedbyallowingcertainchemicalreactionstorearrangethoseatomstoalowerenergyconfigurationlikeCOandHO22TheLawsofThermodynamicsThermodynamicsthestudyofenergytransformationsthatoccurinacollectionofmatterthermodynamicsystemOpenthermodynamicsystemwhichexchangesmatterandenergywiththesurroundingsmayobtainfromordonatetothesurroundingsbothenergyandmatterIngeneralallbiologicalsystemsareopensystemsSomeorganismstakefoodandwatermatterinandexcretesolidslikefecesgasesandwatertothesurroundingOthersalsoabsorbenergylightandheatfromthesurroundingsandgiveoutenergyintheformofbiomassheatlightfireflyandelectricityelectriceelstothesurroundingsClosedthermodynamicsystemwhichdoesnotexchangeeithermatterorenergywiththesurroundingsNoknownthermodynamicsystemisstrictlyclosedHoweverclosedsystemsareveryusefulfortheoreticalcalculationswhichcouldthenbemodifiedtosuitopensystemsFirstlawofthermodynamicsthelawofenergyconservationthetotalamountofenergyintheuniverseremainsconstantEnergycanbechangedfromoneformtoanotherHoweverenergyisneithercreatednotdestroyedinaclosedsystemSecondlawofthermodynamicsthelawofenergyconversionsreducingtheorderoftheuniverseincreasingitsentropyrandomnesstheamountofdisorderinasystemThespontaneousdirectionofenergyflowisfromformsorganizedrichenergytolessorganizedlessenergyTheamountoflowerqualityenergyintheuniverseisincreasingEnergychangesarenot100efficientSomeenergyisalwayslostasheatWithoutenergyinputanyorganizedsystemtendstogetdisorganizedovertime2
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