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Mendelian Genetics

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BIOL 120

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Bio 120 Feb 16 2012 Genetics Three main kinds 1 Transmission genetics inheritance of traits 2 Molecular geneticsgene to phenotype 3 Population genetics allele frequency related to natural selection drift mutation flow between populations etc Early Ideas about InheritcanceHippocrates Inherit characteristics from parents Aristotle inherit potential to form the same features as our parents thEarly 19 century characteristics of parents are blended in the children if children were blended populations could be expected to become more and more similar over the generations difficult to reconcile this theory with sudden appearances of new traitseg albino children in Africa Farmers were the First GeneticistsBred animalsplants with desirable traits most grains nowadays weight at least 50mg Wild plants produce smaller seeds Bred for seed size Herding and domestication of animals Gregor Mendelstudied inheritance of peas at his abbey where he farmedfailed to qualify as a science teacherwas not allowed to study mice by his abbot they were verminIn the 1850srelatively little known about cell theorynothing known about nucleimicroscopes not generally availableMendels Strategy used several pairs of truebreeding homozygous pea strains created by previous generations of farmers chose to study 7 traits that were easy to score flower colour seed shape pod colour plant height etc traits chosen were controlled by a single gene with 2 distinct alleles eg flowers were either white or purple peas can selffertilized and mating can be controlled by mechanically pollinating the plants and then cutting off the pistil of the fertilized plants
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