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Biology 121

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BIOL 121
Philip D.Mc Loughlin

Biology 121 Biology the scientific study of life Evolution unifying principle in biology Embryology studies patterns of development Characteristics and unity of life Cells Shared composition carbs lipids proteins Common ancestorProkaryotes diversity of types of nutrition Domain Bacteria domain Archea Eukaryotes Domain Amimila Fungi Plantae Protista Eukarya As humans we could not communicate without the concept of speciesDiversityEvolution address basic problems of trying to explain diversity of organisms on earth and how they aroseEvolution is the notion that living things gradually change from one form to another over the course of time Characteristics of life1 Life consists of one or more cells all forms can be divided based on their cell structure unicellular vs multicellular not all unicellular organisms are bacteria unicellular algae protozoa Prokaryotes lack membrane enclosed nucleus Eukaryotes membrane within an enclosed nucleus membrane bound organelles 2 Life requires a constant input of energy and raw materials A Autotrophs synthesis their own foodused external energy source to produce organic matter from inorganic raw material Photoautotrophs use light from sun and inorganic materials Chemoautotrophs use inorganic matter obtained from other organismsB Heterotrophs require preformed organic molecules used energy in organic matter obtained from other organisms eaten Photohererotophs use light from sun to generate ATP but need to take in organic compounds from their environment EX Bacteria Chlorflex Halobacteriaconvert sunlight into carbonbased molecules Chemoheterotrophs must obtain organic compounds for both energy and carbon source EX genes that allow it to break down skin cells and consume products Heterotrophs can also be divided by their trophic levelConsumer feed on other living organisms Herbivores eat plants Carnivores eat animals Omnivores eat bothDetritivores feed on dead organic materials by ingesting itSaprotrophs decomposers feed on dead organic material by secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products 3 Living organisms can regulate their internal environment homeostasisChemical and physical consistency in the face change in surroundingsSalinity pH temperature nitrogenous wastes toxins hairfeathers 4 Life makes short term responses to stimuli in surroundings Common stimuli are heat cold light sound taste5 Life reproduces itselfReproduction most obvious and unique characteristic of lifePerpetuation continuing life is key to a species survivalAll of chemical and physical quantities of life these which characterize and define each life form are replicated and preserved in a new generation of cells and individuals Asexual reproduction1 Fission one individual separated into 2 individuals of equal size2 Budding new individuals arise from an outgrowth of another daughter of a different size 3 Fragmentation and regeneration parent breaks off into pairs each piece gives rise to a new individual 4Parthenogenesis animals development of an individual from an unfertilized egg6 Life must grow and developGrowth the processes that increase the about of living substance 7 Life can move not all Locomotion moving from one place to another 8 Life adapts through evolution Physical and chemical behavioral characteristics of life change
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