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HIST 151
Kathryn Labelle

History 151. Week 2: Origins, Origin Stories and Indigenous Histories Cosmologies (world views)  Old world (Europe): o Eurocentric: negates the perspectives of the natives see as their world (new world) isn’t new to them o Evolutionary way of thinking: linear, trajectory, time line; living a nomadic way of life is not civilized o Patricentric: privilege of the man, tracing family lineage through the father, men had a larger say in government and ownership than women.  New World (Canada): o Circular way of thinking: interconnectedness, cycles, develop through situations o Matricentric: privilege of the woman, tracing family lineage through the mother, large say in government What was North America like before European Encounters?  12 language families in Canada  People of the Saskatchewan region o Algonquian o Athabaskan o Siouan  100 million people in Americas, 10 million above Mexico  50-80 million people in Europe How did people get here?  Land bridges and midcontinental route (land bridge of Asia)  Ocean voyages along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts  Coastal theories (island hopping)  Multiple ways people got into Americas; changed throughout the years Why did they come here?  Push factors: keeping them in the Old World o Lack of resources o Environmental stress (drought) o Overpopulation o Warfare  Pull factors: Bringing them to the New World o Better and newer resources o Economic trade o Curiosity o Prestige (Columbus) North American Societies  Matricentric; mother centered, women have a central place  Warfare; human replacement, mourning war, women decide who why and when you go to war, it’s not about land or resources but about repopulation (kidnapping/adoption) and replacing the person o Ex: if you replace the Chief you become the Chief; his mother is now your mother, his brother is your brother etc.  Government: emphasis on councils and consensus, elected bodies o Council of chiefs: municipal and ―provincial‖ level o Civil chiefs: dealt with trade problems, issues within the tribe o Women’s council: all men elected by women but could be replaced by women o Elders council: the elders of the tribe  Religion North American Spiritual Systems  Anthropomorphism: everything has a soul  Animism  Circular (everything is equal) Demographics before Europeans  Many trade routes, very complicated; Young Street is most ancient trade route  Focusing on water ways (rivers), the authority over water was very important (St. Lawrence River)  St. Louis (Cahokia) had a population in the 1000’s and rivaled with Mayan cities; o were nomadic then agricultural revolution and climate change (had to adapt), o they gathered into smaller groups and moved; giving up their temples (higher way of living) and moved to live on the land and become hunters and gatherers (digression)  Montreal (Hochelaga) population in the 1000’s  Dales, Oregon (Win-Quatte) with a high population it was the major trade center for salmon Oma ma ma (Earth Mother)  Creation of the World (how the world came to be)  Thunderbird  The frog  Trickster ( shape shifter; inseparable from Little Wolf)  Little Wolf (little brother of trickster)  Beaver (privilege, human from another world)  Plants, rocks, flowers,  Not until much later that trickster creates humans Conclusion  You cannot understand Canadian history without understanding the Indigenous past  Origin stories help us to explain the cosmological framework of early Canadian societies  These beliefs and traditions were not part of a New World order but the legacy of ancient customs steeped in local landscapes and history Week 3: Cultural Encounters and Colonial Projects; Explorers, Merchants and Missionaries Definitions:  Colonization: a foreign group settling and occupying another groups cultural and territorial landscape  Contact zones: metaphorical zone where different cultures and ideas meet  Encounters: physical and exchange of ideas and views  Revision quest: labels and language The Stages of Colonization  Exploration o Going where no one has gone before  Fission o One group breaks away from the main group and produces offspring  Migration o Moving to unknown, unoccupied territory  Colonization o Establishing residency in these new areas, tap into the resources  Settlement o Fully exploits and occupies the new territory What was Europe like before North American Contact? th  1 million people in 16 century o Population boom because of an agriculture revolution and decline of disease  1600’s 75% of population relied on farming(land) however it was becoming scarce so people urbanized  Social and economic systems were based on feudal systems (lords, classes, slaves)  Patricentric society (male dominant) o Women could work in hospitals or as servants  Witchcraft trials; focused on females supernatural powers, if you didn’t stay within the norm you were deemed a witch  The government is Kings and Queens and by 1700’s the concept of ―divine rights‖ (God given right to rule) was established ex: Louis 14, Henry 8  Courts controlled everything and were appointed by the Kings advisors  Roman catholic church was fully established by 1700’s o The Pope is God’s messenger on Earth; hierarchy o Martin Luther protested against Roman Catholic Church in 1500’s creating Protestant o Society of Jesus and the Ursulins emerge after all the revolt and wars with the Roman Catholic Church causing them to change their ways Explorers and Merchants  The Norse (1100 AD) o Newfoundland o Set up semi-permanent residence to fish  The Portuguese (1500) o Newfoundland and Nova Scotia o Documented their trips o Brought back 57 Baotuk slaves they weren’t only using the land for fishing but for slave trades as well  Spanish o Golf of St. Lawrence o Walrus hunting and fishing  French (1535) o Jacques Cartier  went up the St. Lawrence to Hochelaga  interested to learn about the people and the land , looking for opportunities for them to ―grow together‖  married a girl from Hochelaga (as given girl from Chief)  English o Newfoundland o Tried to make a permanent settlement, however the land was not useful to them o Lots of complications with the Aboriginals causing them to give up settlements  The explorers were all men, merchants and soldiers, not surprising since there was military conflict. Looking for new trade and fame and fortune (notary) The Missionaries  Accompanied the explorers  Society of Jesus: o Ignatius Loyola o Established with a military perspective being the ―soldiers of God‖ o Used their religious knowledge and teaching abilities to convert people o Jesuits were all men  Ursulin nuns (1535) o Established by Angela Merici o Focused on women and teaching in schools o The pope and the public did not like the idea of girls becoming educated however after a petition they allowed them to teach but with very strict rules o They were very knowledgeable therefore they left detailed work (letters, journals) about their missions Conclusion  Europeans have been traveling to the New World long before Columbus’ voyage in 1492  Europeans went to North America for many different reasons including economic, social and religious  The 16 and 17 centuries saw a rise of European ventures to the America  Explorers, merchants and missionaries were the main European groups who made these initial trips Week 3 cont.: Colonialism, Process of Settlement and Euro Exploration Aenon  Huron/Wendat  Birth is unknown, Death 1637 in Trois Rivieres  Civil Chief of Bear Nation; an alliance of 5 nations that made up the Wendat confederacy  Lived in Wendake  Role: politics, diplomacy o First with many other chiefs to meet the French down the St. Lawrence river  Interested in trade for steal, metal, tools and spices  1630’s there was a close relationship but as time went on interpreters began to teach each other the languages ; Europeans learnt Wendat  Wanted to keep the French however other chiefs (Taretande) did not want them to stay; not sure of their motives  Taretande had many other chiefs on side about wanting the French(Jesuits) exiled o In 1630’s starting to name the Jesuits as witches due to their continuous use of ―magic and evil acts‖ o Aenon did not like this, and forced the exiles to be ended  Aenon wanted to create a Centre Lieu o A amalgamation of the 5 societies in the Wendat Confederacy to have more support o Including the missionaries so that they could have French military back up if needed  In 1636 Aenon wanted to have the Feast of Souls o Large burial where all the Wendats who died within 8-10 years were buried in an ossuary o Diplomatic strategy for Algonquin, Iroquois etc. since they could bring their bodies as well so they could be buried and ―live‖ together in the after life o Asked the Missionaries if they wanted to bury their 2 bodies with the Wendat to solidify their alliance however the French declines because they didn’t want the alliance to be solidified and didn’t want to have to worry about the Wendats  European disease began to spread, killing Aenon and Taretande as well as 60% of the Wendat population at the same time as they were at war with the Iroquois Jean de Brebeuf  Born 1593-1649  Joined the Jesuit order in France  Came to the New World in 1642 and was one of the first to meet Aenon  Asked to come and live with Aenon and join the Feast of Souls  Main goal was to convert the Huron’s; however many converted on their death beds  Created 2 dictionaries as a source of info and communication between other missionaries and trader to learn Wendat  Sent reports back to France o They were being published so they were mainly positive and bias  Brebeuf was the author os the ―Huron Carol‖ wrote it in Wendat to express his love for them  Died as a martyr(sacrifice) killed by Iroquois, refused to leave his mission of St. Marie Marie (Guyart) de l’Incarnation  Born in Tours, France 1599- Died 1672  Expressed the desire to become a nun at a young age  Married a man and had a son named Claude  Widowed at the age of 19 so moved in with her sister  Decides to become an Ursulin nun and leaves Claude (8) with her sister in France however she stays in contact with her son over the years through letters  Has a dream while at the convent that she needs to go to New France o Protested against Ursulin nuns going over there o Two wealthy noble women in 1630 her the money to go over  She sets up schools, hospitals; bringing nurses back with her  Since disease and war were spreading, Huron’s moved towards Quebec City o Ursulin nuns offered food, European education and help (everything that was needed at the time) in the form of a convent o Offered only to Huron’s and Wendats, wanting to convert them  Once Wendats reestablished they community they began to leave the convent because they wanted to create a family and the mortality rate for Aboriginals was high  The seminary(convent) which started as a school for Aboriginals women was mainly a school for th th French Canadians by 17 and 18 century Conclusion  Although it is useful to look at collective actions and motivations, history also requires us to explore the agency of individuals on the ground  The relationships and policies initiated by individuals in the early stages of European and North American encounters established historical context for these relations to the present Week 4: Land and Property; Systems of Settlement and Territorial Authority Indigenous Relocations  The Odawa Experience (1640’s) o Lived in many different locations, shores of Georgia Bay and Great Lakes o 4 centuries lived in Ottawa area and have deep ties to the area o 1640’s Europeans start coming and economic competition begins (Beaver Wars) o Odawa constantly at war with 6 nations Iroquois who live south of Toronto f1634- 1650 peaking in 1640 o They had to defend themselves from war as well as European disease; causing a significant loss in people, mainly elders, children and men aged 30-50(chiefs and soldier) o Migrated as a solution Process and Protocol: Odawa  Push factors: o War so they headed west along Sault St Marie, took over 20 years o Walking and canoeing  Diplomacy: o Sending messages to Nippising (civil chief) traveling west to see if they would be accepted  Kinship o Creating familial ties o Marriage of the Odawa and Nippising; so when they get there they are already apart of the family  Ceremony o Feast of souls to make alliances with other nations New France  The Seigniorial System: a land system where land is taken in strips off a water system  Property owned by French monarchy, King gives land to prominent French citizens  King-seigneur-habitants  The people who lived and worked on this land were known as the ―habitants‖ o Had to pay rent to land owners  Created a class system within New France Process and Protocol: French  Ceremony o Planting of a cross (Cartier) o Claiming the land for the King of France and Catholic Church o Economic and political power  Naming o Giving the Aboriginal cities French names o Hochelaga=Montreal, Stadacona=Quebec City  Map Making o Literacy traditions o Critical to settlement and travels to show the territories discovered  Agriculture o Since most Aboriginals were hunters and gatherers French viewed the land as unused o Began near the St. Lawrence  Immigration o Small population of French in New France until 18 century o Kings Daughters were given free passes to come to New France to marry and have children o People are establishing families to entitle permanency  Military forts o Had to protect their new lands o Fortifications in Quebec City and Montreal  Kinship o Recognizing kinship ties were necessary for making alliances o Marry the Aboriginal women giving the French men the upper hand in protection these men were known as ―couriers’ de bois‖ the French fur traders The Business of the British in North America  The British explorations were instigated by business  Charter colonies: businesses who got money to come to North America  Farms and Fences o Established these for a sense of privacy o Wanting to isolated themselves from the Aboriginal o Indentured servants: British men and women who would sign 5-8 year contracts to work on the farmers land o Military might: didn’t like going in or out of the fort causing lots of conflict  Jamestown: John Smith; military exploit so when he came over he had to resort to what he knew; military defense Process and Protocol: English  Charter: o Got granted a charter (business) from money  Families: o Very early on they were bringing their whole families over o Emphasizing the idea of permanency  Military conquest: o Kidnap and kill local population  Isolation o Isolating themselves o Easier defense systems  Maps: o Drawing maps to designate their lands  Naming: o Gave what they came across an English name to designate ownership  Treaties o Creating contracts with local Aboriginals for political and economic alliances Conclusion  Although strategies of relocation and settlement differed between North Americans such as the Odawa and the Europeans and French and English, all parties sought to invoke successful tactics to create permanent settlements throughout North America Week 4 cont.: Land and Property; Systems of Settlement and Territorial Authority Land and Property  Similarities between the French and English settlers o Naming o Ways of interacting with North American o Military backgrounds o Resources: economic systems of trade, where settlements were made Charles le Moyne  Born in France 1626-1685  Born to an innkeeper, raised in a ―normal‖ life.  Sent to New France since he had an uncle living there  When he arrived to New France he was a servant, employed by the Jesuit Priest and moved to Wendat/Huron country living among them  Developed close relationships with them, became fluent in many of Aboriginal languages  Developed a career as a trader and was hired as an interpreter by Iroquois  Became highly involved in French and Iroquois war and enlists in the military. Involved in the capturing of his men; negotiates to have them released  Continues his military career and is given 90 acres which he named ―Longeveil fief‖ and became Seigneur with many workers on it  Builds military castle and lives inside it.  Before he died he gave his land to his son Charles le Moyne II who continues to build up his land  He was the wealthiest man in New France at the time, and was a great success story to send back to France Elenore de Grandmaison  Born in France 1620-1692  Was the property of her father  Married at the young age of 15 and is widowed early into the marriage, she remarries quickly  Has 4 daughters and 2 sons with the second marriage  Goes to New France (specifically Quebec) with second husband, he dies, she then becomes a Seigneuresse(owns land on Ile d’Orleans)  In 1651 Wendat refugees move east towards Quebec (300 people) and ask Jesuits what to do. Jesuits send them to Ile d’Orleans  The Jesuits say ―you aren’t fully capable of farming this land, let the refugees live on our land and we’ll pay you in military protection‖ to Elenore, the Wendats are the farmers  Wendat sign an 8 year contract to Elenore  Once a week the women from Wendat had to visit Elenores house and bring her supplies and check on her  1656 the Mohawk invade this island  ―Massacre‖ victory for the Mohawk, 50% of Wendat are taken prisoner and the French don’t care and don’t help therefore the Wendat break their contracts and leave the island  After massacre she remarries twice more and has more children (in double digits)  Died a poor French citizen; had a lot of land because it wasn’t prosperous however it was financially successful  Jesuits recorded her marriages and contracts Jean Ouetenac  Birth is unsure, living in the 1650’s  He is a Wendat living in the area (Great Lakes)  Took part in military campaigns against Iroquois; was help captive  Christian, baptized before he was captured, he is released and sent back to the Wendat  Finds his people living on Ile d’Orleans however leaves when the massacre begins  Reinstated as chief, Jesuits take a liking to him because of his diplomatic skills and he is also a Christian  Talks to Jesuits to negotiate land, they are given land in Quebec City area for their community  Wendat believed in communal property whereas the French were closed off and private  They gave Jean his own private land and he divides this land and gives to Wendat families (clan mothers; heads of lodges) to give to the community so they have the authority over the use of the land Conclusion  The relationship between land and people varied depending on you culture, ethnicity and gender therefore all early Canadians recognized the importance of land to their lives and developed strategies to establish themselves permanently within the territory of New France Week 5: Cultural and Continental Conquest; 7 years’ war/ French and Indian war/ Pontiac rebellion Background  Odawa were pushed west 1650 due to a series of war mainly with the Iroquois (happening in Great Lakes region) o Also within those series of battles the Europeans begin to get involved, picking sides  French (Odawa and Wendat; northern part) and English (Iroquois) rivalry o Beaver Wars because beaver pelts were in high demand therefore whoever won would dominate the beaver pelt trade  1701 the Great Peace of Montreal; simmers the military conquests o 40 native nations including Iroquois and French  In early 1700’s the War of Spanish Succession happens n Europe (British, French, Spanish) and trickles a little bit into North America o Treaty of Utrecht 1713: France give up most of their land in North America; giving up Hudson bay, Acadia and Newfoundland to the British  In the 17 century we have Odawa and Iroquois competing against each other for European trade (idea for conquest) o Going to war because of trade (new development) o Further military battles over land (new motivations for warfare) Great Peace of Montreal (1713-1744)  Trying to keep peace in North America  Oath of Allegiance (1729 and 1730): required by the British for former French subjects o Allegiance to Britain o DO NOT have to take up arms against the French or their native allies;  this was a good thing because they just fought a war alongside them since New France still exists Louisbourg 1719  in 1719 the French build a fort in the village of Louisbourg, Ile Royal (cape Breton)  population from 1713 to 1719 booms and goes from 116 to 5000  there is a high rate of immigration; which accounts for the population boom o Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese o Missionaries and soldiers  Cosmopolitan port Halifax (1749)  Built by the British to counter the French Military presence in Louisburg o Gains population, viable military center The Ohio Valley  Space for Europeans, unknown or claimed by any  French and British are coming in and establishing themselves o War breaks out because they are competition for space and land; war extends to Canada The war(s) 1756-1763  French win most of the wars and gaining British forts, have a serious of successful military raves o They are successful because they align themselves with many North Americans who know the lands o Guerilla warfare: not only riffles and cannons but using bow and arrows and tomahawks (development in kind of warfare Europeans are engaging with)  Siege of Quebec: o ?  The Plains of Abraham o British win the war; just outside Quebec City o Both British and French generals die Pontiac’s rebellion/War (1763)  Pontiac (Odawa War Chief)  They lived in Ohio Valley and feel the Europeans coming and can sense that they are no longer wanting to explore they now want to settle  Pontiac and native people in that area are aware of that; not going to war because British and French are going to war o Going to war to maintain their land  They have an alliance with the French but this was just another layer to the war that was already happening.  In 1762 Pontiac is not satisfied because the British are still out there (French have been defeated)  Most successful military campaign in history to that point o Captures all the forts east of Detroit  The British roll up blankets that are infected by small pox and go to meet Pontiac and other chiefs saying it is medicine (bio warfare) o Exchange is done in peace talks o Sign of ―friendship‖ o Within a span of a 16 mile radius and a few weeks all the native villages were wiped out o Don’t know who ordered it however we do know it happened  Despite the small pox strategy on the British they are still winning their military campaign o They stop because its hunting season (warriors are the hunters) and the British create a piece of legislation  Royal proclamation of 1763 o Any land deemed to be native territory must be negotiated through treaty in order to acquire it; has to be done with representative of British Crown o This is what Pontiac is fighting for Acadian Deportation  The French people who the British feel are not trustworthy they make a deportation rule  The deported o 1756: 200 to Boston o 1758: 3500 to France o 1759: 1800 to Canada (Quebec) o Estimated 11000 people were deported  This strategy is to appease the idea that the French will take up arms Conclusion  Britain emerged from the 7 years’ war as the dominant empirical power in North America  In order to solidify their hold on land and people for the long term, the British implemented policies of forced removal as well as enforced systems of negotiation Week 5 cont.: Cultural and Continental Conquest; Marquis Montcalm, James Wolfe, Chief Pontiac The Marquis de Montcalm  Born in France 1712 Dies Sept 17 1756 o To an aristocratic French family  Educated at home  At the age of 9 he begins his military training; decided by his parents, his future is already set by the age of 9  In 1732 he officially begins his military career  Years late he marries Angelique-Louis Talon de Boulay who is also from an aristocratic family th  In 1743 he is knighted; since it is the 18 century there is still the idea of monarchy and knighthood  Comes to North America after 31 years of service, 11 campaigns in Europe, 5 wounds  Retires 1753  When the 7 years’ War starts in Europe and trickles to New France he goes there to support in 1755  1756 he arrives at Quebec  Has conflicts with the governor; disagreeing with each other’s strategies and ideas, they butted heads constantly  Wounded on the Plains of Abraham and dies off the battle field o Buried in a shell crater under the floor of the chapel of the Ursulin nuns  You can tell the status of a person by the way they are buried James Wolfe  Born in 1727 died at 32 in 1759st  His father was a colonel in the 1 regiment of marines; military family  Formally educated (within school system) receiving a very good education st  His first military appointment at 13 was with the same as his fathers (1 regiment of marines)  He fought in Europeans wars and in Scotland  Stationed in Scotland when 7 years’ war breaks out; in poor health but joins the campaign against the French  He has a reputation for tough military policies o A key leader in the capture of Louisbourg; and enforces a tough military o Destruction of New Brunswick settlements and fisheries  Dies on the plains of Abraham  Buried with military honors in Greenwich, England Chief Pontiac  Born somewhere within this time frame 1712-1725 near Detroit died 1769 St. Louis  Odawa War chief Leading his people to war to protect his own territory and his own people in this race for North America happening in the Ohio Valley  Lying around Detroit with a number of other Frist Nations and aren’t oblivious to the settlement of Europeans (French in Detroit, British have interest)  Neolin is the prophet who is preaching to reject all the Europeans o Gains a large following including Pontiac  Time period leading up the 7 years’ war  In 1745 he is requested by the Odawa to lead 60 Odawa men to go to Montreal to fight the English  Starts promoting a Pan-Native Alliance amongst all first nations around Great Lakes, St. Lawrence and around Ohio Valley o Persuasive leader o Has Neolins supporters; they worked side by side for many years o Knows that the English-British war will affect his people so he convinces the councils to engage on the side of the French because they were much more engaged in kinship and family ties, they already had a relationship with the French  Odawa were at war with the Iroquois and the Iroquois were sided with British  Fight along the French on the Plains of Abraham; lose and the French and English sign a ―friendship‖ contract  The Odawa and native nations are not happy with the result of the war and is trying to gather support to recapture Quebec; capturing all the British east of Detroit  The war just stops because of hunting season and because the Royal Proclamation is signed  He hears of the Royal Proclamation he acknowledges the British and decided to give up military campaign; however within his own community there are many people who still believe in Neolins message and that they need to be destroyed o Many contest Pontiacs policy and Detroit divides into Pro and Anti Pontiac  Because of the debate and division he is exiled and travels west to Cahokia (St. Louis)  Murdered in St. Louis hatchet in the head, do not know If or where he was buried  He is a argumentative figure Montcalm remembered  There are monuments all across Canada (Quebec and Manitoba) paying tribute to him  Plaques dedicated to him  Historians write about him Wolfe remembered  Monuments in Canada (Quebec City built in 1960’s) and in West minister Abbey England  Plaque on the plains of Abraham exactly where Wolfe died Pontiac remembered  Muscle cars; warrior and chief  There are some plaques dedicated to him, but they are minimal and only come about in the last 20 years Conclusion  The conquest wars between France and Britain were part of a long standing tradition of warfare steeped in European traditions but they were also the products of individual human agency  The ways the individuals are remembered reflect the aspirations and motivations of the time period and society that related these memories ( ex: Pontiac and the car, what were they thinking about him and his history )and are not necessarily representations of their historical significance contributions Week 6: The Long Wars (1774-1812; the American Revolution and the war of 1812 The Road to Revolution  The Rights of Englishmen: 1722 British passes council that people (men) in the colonies needs Englishmen rights o Assumed by the colonist but controversial in England  The proclamation of 1763: signed in Britain  The Paxton Boys Pennsylvania 1763: frustrated about the Royal Proclamation, attacked a Conestoga (first nations) village to make their point, and killed many women and children.  Debt and taxation: were a big factor that contributed to the revolution o War costs a lot of money 140,000,000$ in debt and colonists had to cover 300,000$ in taxes o The colonists should contribute to paying of the debt which contributed to the making of the Sugar Act o The Sugar Act 1764: taxes on non-British west Indies, the north was very upset o The Stamp Act 1765: put stamps on legal documents, papers, etc. NO juries brought to trial; burning post master o Sons and Daughters of Liberty: limited imports from England; making their own items o Townsend duties 1767: additional taxes on lead, paper, glass, silk and tea from England o Tea Act 1773: Boston Tea Party, Mohawks dumped 10,000$ worth of tea o Quebec Act: ensured French religion, civil law and territory into the Ohio Valley  British Military Presence o Boston massacre o Brits wanted to maintain 8,000 troops after the war instead of only 800  First Continental Congress (Philadelphia 1774): discussing the rights of Englishmen; protecting their rights as British citizens  Second Continental Congress (1775): all 13 representatives were there o The Olive Branch Petition  The British monarchy didn’t respond o Pushing them to sign the declaration of independence  Deceleration of Independence: debated and signed in 1776 by Jefferson, Franklin and Lockian The war (America vs. Britain)  Daughters of liberty: wives who made goods o Patriot organization sewed uniforms, fed officers, parade and commissions for Stamp Act, made soaps so they didn’t have to import  First Rhode island regiment o Made up of black malisha men o Longest African American slave uprising  The Iroquois confederacy: different nations siding with the Europeans o The Mohawk and British vs. the Oneida and Americans The Loyalists (British)  America wins war  Forced/voluntary migrations to Canada (out of USA)  Approximately half the colonists of European ancestry tried to avoid involvement. o 62,000 of European Ancestry  3,000 Blacks arrived in the Maritimes in 1783; settling in Nova Scotia o Could not vote, segregated, could not fish in the St. John’s Harbor. o Many chose to leave with the promotion of a ―Back to Africa‖ Campaign to Sierra Leon  3,000 African Americans (1783)  Rather than fight, they leave to go to other British colonies and Canada  Identified 8 characteristics of the Loyalists that made them essentially conservative. 1) Psychologically they were older, better established, and resisted innovation. 2) They thought resistance to the Crown—the legitimate government—was morally wrong. 3) They were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence, such as burning houses and tarring and feathering. 4) They wanted to take a middle-of-the road position and were angry when forced by the Patriots to declare their opposition. 5) They had a long-standing sentimental attachment to Britain (often with business and family links). 6) They were procrastinators who realized that independence was bound to come someday, but wanted to postpone the moment. 7) They were rightly cautious and afraid of anarchy or tyranny that might come from mob rule, which did cost many their property and security after the revolution. 8) The memory and dreadful experience of many Scottish immigrants who had already seen or paid the price of rebellion in dispossession and clearance from their prior homeland. A Loyalist Woman’s Perspective: The Journey (The diary of Sara Frost 1873  Born in Connecticut  Father fought for the British, brother fought for the Patriots (Americans)  Family is relocated to war camps  On board a ship with 250 colonists from New York going to New Brunswick  7 months pregnant with 2 children under the age of 5 o No family support and arrives to New Brunswick and starts a new life Creating a homeland  Concept of homeland (British, French, Acadia, and Detroit) was flexible.  People were establishing new homelands, while trying to reconstruct the societies they left behind.  Homes: dirt floors, not stone walls, wood, hand-made windows were made with oil paper  People preferred the winter cold, to the fevers and sweats of the summer months.  Re-established Communities  Mohawk migrate to Brantford and set-up reserve.  Naming o Placing names was another way of creating a familiar space o Indian trails became British roads o Woodlands became cleared bush American Revolution II (1812)  North West Ordinance 1787: considered to be one of the most significant achievements of the Congress of the Confederation o Put the world on notice not only that the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi would be settled but that it would eventually become part of the United States. Until then this area had been temporarily forbidden to development.  Increasing numbers of settlers and land speculators (investors) were attracted to what are now the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin.  This pressure together with the demand from the Ohio Land Company, soon to obtain vast holdings in the Northwest, prompted the Congress to pass this Ordinance  The area opened up by the Ordinance was based on lines originally laid out in 1784 by Thomas Jefferson in his Report of Government for Western Lands. o The Ordinance provided for the creation of 3-5 states. In addition, it contained provisions for the advancement of education, the maintenance of civil liberties and the exclusion of slavery.  Above all, the Northwest Ordinance accelerated the westward expansion of the United States.  Louisiana Purchase 1803: USA bought Louisiana from the French o The U.S. paid a total cost of $15,000,000 for the Louisiana territory. o The purchase was a vital moment in the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. At the time, it faced domestic opposition as being possibly unconstitutional. Although he felt that the US Constitution did not contain any provisions for acquiring territory, Jefferson decided to purchase Louisiana because he felt uneasy about France and Spain having the power to block American trade access to the port of New Orleans  Lewis and Clarke: (1803-1806) the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. o The expedition's goal as stated by President Jefferson was to explore the Missouri River and to see if any other rivers would be better suited for trades. o The expedition was also to learn more about the Northwest's natural resources, inhabitants, and possibilities for settlement. o They did not achieve their primary objective of finding a waterway across North America, however they successfully mapped, found resources and Native American relations occurred. Immediate Causes of war of 1812  Trade restrictions: were introduces by Britain to obstruct American trade with France o the U.S. contested these restrictions as illegal under international law  Impressment: Britain doesn’t acknowledge all of the USA as patriots because the majority were of British decedents o British soldiers were trying to impress (force into service) the Americans  British Military Aid to First Nations: support for America Indians who were offering armed resistance to the expansion of the American frontier to the Northwest  An unstated but powerful motivation for the Americans was the need to uphold national honor in the face of what they considered to be British insults o Ex: Cheapskate affair. Winners?  British burn own white house o Canada has beaten the Americans o York vs. Washington Losers?  Tecumseh and the Western Confederacy o Born: 1768 Ohio o A Shawnee leader that led his people to war against the British and the Americans  The Dakota o Fought for the British also but remain in American territory o 1860’s they move to the prairies Conclusion  The American Revolution and the War of 1812 created not just one country but two.  The causes and motivations were based on the same principles and claims  The winner of these wars is debatable, however the Aboriginals decisively lost in the long term Week 6 cont.: The Long Wars 1774-1812 (Molly Brant, Rev. Moses Wilkinson, Laura Secord) Molly Brant  A Mohawk woman  Born in Ohio Valley in 1736 (during 7 years war) died 1796  Mother was Iroquois father was Mohawk  She single-handedly is credited with maintaining British loyalty throughout the Iroquois Confederacy.  At a young age she has a high status as an aboriginal woman (clan mothers) and mothering to do with her father  Age of 18 she leads a delegation to Philly t
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