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Lecture 2

NURS 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Central Nervous System, Lower Motor Neuron, Basal Ganglia


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 203
Professor
Cheryl Besse
Lecture
2

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NURS 203- L02
Neurological System I: Motor Response
General Structure
-Nervous system:
oCentral nervous system (CNS)- Brain and spinal cord, contains the upper motor neurons
oPeripheral nervous system (PNS)- All nervous 'ssue outside of the CNS (i.e. spinal nerves,
cranial nerves), contains the lower motor neurons
oCrossed representa'on- Le+ side of the brain communicates with the right side of the body and
vice versa
General Funcon
-Nervous system is responsible for:
oVarious senses. Speech, memory, emo'ons, thoughts, body movement control and regula'ng
the internal organs
-Grouped into three basic func'ons:
oSensory- Detects s'muli
oIntegra've- Processes informa'on, then decides what to do
oMotor- Ac'va'on of muscles and glands
Structure and Funcon: CNS
Brain
-Cerebrum (hemispheres, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia)- Planning for the future, crea'vity, intelligence,
learning, etc.
oGyrus- The ridges in the cerebrum
Post central and pre central gyri- Mostly responsible for motor func'on but also sensory
func'on
oSulcus- The space between the ridges
oCerebral cortex- Outer grey layer, four lobes
Frontal- Voluntary movement, personality, emo'ons, contains Broca’s area (formula'on
of speech, motor aspect)
Parietal- Primary sensa'on centre
Occipital- Primary visual receptor centre
Temporal- Primary auditory centre, contains Wernickes area (word salad if damaged)
Think about the homunculus
oBasal ganglia- Controls automa'c movement, grey ma7er in the centre of the brain
-Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
oThalamus- Major relay sta'on, receives all sensory s'muli and relays it to pain, movement, etc.
oHypothalamus- Regulates hormones, temperature, appe'te, pleasure, pain, rage, sleep/ wake
cycle, etc.
-Cerebellum- Blends skilled movements, posture and balance
-Brain stem
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