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Phil 224 - Oct 1st 2012.doc

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PHIL 224
George Williamson

Pstl 224 October 1 2012 1 Housekeeping: Midterm − take home − some number of questions and you will answer them in essay forms − can work in groups but each paper must be individual Objectification 1. Instrumentality - use as tool for own purposes (Nussbaum’s worst case) 2. Denial of autonomy - treat as lacking self-determination (If persistent character of relationship)  you need to make the choices for children up to a certain age  example: what to eat, power to hold a credit card 3. Inertness - treat as lacking in agency/activity  think of a newborn baby that needs to be moved around 4. Fungibility - treat as interchangeable/substitutable - commodification 5. Violability - treat as lacking in boundary-integrity, permissible to break apart/into 6. Ownership - treat as possession, to be bought or sold - commodification 7. Denial of subjectivity - treat as if feelings/experience can be ignored (If persistent character of relationship) Later additions by Rae Langton: 8. Reduction to body: the treatment of a person as identified with their body, or body parts; 9. Reduction to appearance: the treatment of a person primarily in terms of how they look, or how they appear to the senses; 10. Silencing: the treatment of a person as if they are silent, lacking the capacity to speak.  No voice of their own, completely silent Nussbaum’s two interpretive issues (page 258) − talk about their ethical impact − we're not just looking at what is presented, but the point of view/context of what is being presented In representation/literature, separate the objectification: 1. Of one character by another 2. Of persons by text taken as a whole Possible to evaluate the morality of conduct: 1. That consists in representing Pstl 224 October 1 2012 2 2. Of represented conduct Booth’s schema: 1. Narrator/characters 2. Implied author - sense of life embodied in the text taken as a whole 2. Real-life author Ethical criticism of literature of a text as a whole requires us to focus on 2. the implied author By asking ourselves: - what sort of interaction the text as a whole promotes in us as readers? - what sort of desires and projects it awakens and constructs? Note: not causal properties of text: but interpretive interaction Six passages Nussbaum takes a look at: − His blood beat up in waves of desire. He wanted to come to her, to meet her. She was there, if he could reach her. The reality of her who was just beyond him absorbed him. Blind and destroyed, he pressed forward, nearer, nearer, to receive the consummation of himself, be received within the darkness which should swallow him and yield him up to himself. If he could come really
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