PHSI 208 Lecture Notes - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Twin, Panic Disorder

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25 Jan 2013

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Paradigm- the conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works. A paradigm is a set of basic
assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry
Paradigms specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the investigation. They
serve the vital function of indicating the rules to be followed
A paradigm injects inevitable biases into the definition and collection of data and may also affect the
interpretation of facts
There are 5 paradigms: biological, psychoanalytical, humanistic and existential, learning and cognitive
Current thinking about abnormal beh tends to be multi faceted and tend to integrate several paradigms
Biological paradigm- a broad theoretical view that holds that mental disorders are caused by some aberrant
somatic process or defect. Its continuous of the somatoegnic hypothesis.
The paradigm has often been referred to as the medical model or disease model
The study of ab beh is linked historically to medicine
For a time the germ theory was the paradigm of medicine but it soon became apparent that this theory could not
account for all diseases. Heart disease is one example. Medical illnesses can differ from one another in causes but
they all share one characteristic: in al of them some bio process is disrupted or not functioning normally. That’s
why its called the bio paradigm
The bio paradigm was the dominant paradigm in Canada and elsewhere from the late 1800s until at least the
middle of the 20th cen
Hall; use of gynaecological procedures to treat “insanity in women from B.C. he maintained that insanity exists
when the Ego is dominated and controlled by the influence from a diseased periphery nerve tract or centre.. the
removal of a small part of the physical disease might result in the restoration of the balance of power to such an
organism and diminish if not remove the ab psychic phenomena. Removal of ovarian cysts or the entire ovaries
was employed as treatment for melancholia, mania and delusions
Contemporary approaches to the biological paradigm
Hereditary probably predisposes a person to have increased risk of developing schizto, depression may result
from chemical imbalances within the brain, anxiety disorders may stem from a defect within the automatic NS
that causes a person to be too easily aroused and dementia can be traced to impairments in structures of the brain
In each case the psychopathology is viewed as caused by the disturbance of some bio process
Behaviour Genetics
When the ovum, female reproductive cell is joined by the male’s spermatozoon, a zygote or fertilized egg is
It has 46 chromosomes, the # of characteristics of a human being
Each chromosome is made up of thousands of genes, the carriers of the genetic information (DNA) passed from
parents to child
Gene- an ultramicroscopic area of the chromosome; the gene is the smallest physical unit of the DNA molecule
that carries a piece of hereditary information
Behavioural genetics is the study of individual differences in beh that are attributable in part to differentiate in
genetic makeup. It studies the degree to which characteristics such as psychical resemblance or psychopathology
are shared by family members cuz of shared genes
The total genetic makeup of an individual consisting of inherited genes is referred to as the genotype
Genotype- an indiv unobservable genetic constitution; the totality of genes possessed by an indib
Phenotype- the totality of the persons observable, beh characterises such as the level of anxiety.
The genotype is fixed at birth but it should not be viewed as a static entity
The phenotype changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction between the genotype and the
Any measure of intelligence is best viewed as an index of the phenotype
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