POLS 226

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Political Studies
POLS 226
Sara Mc Phee- Knowles

Page 1 of 11January 10 2012 Definitions of Public PolicyThe definitions that exist are very vague Governments do a lot more than they used toPopulations tax more now and the expectations of them have increasedRegulations are a form of law and have the ability to set out specific policies SubsidiesPaid by government to other levels or specific firmsJanuary 12 2012 Essay ProposalWorth 10 of your final gradeLate penalty is 10 per weekElectronic copy must also be submitted by emailProposal should be 12 pages doublespaced with clear explanation of topic as well as draft of argumentative thesisMinimum of five scholarly sourcesDescription of preliminary topic needs to be clearTitle page o Title of your essay must be included o Your name and student number o POLS 226Format o Needs to be clear precise and grammatically correct o Each paragraph needs to be subparagraph to thesis statementThesis statements o Needs to be debatable narrow and related to a policy issue January 17 2012 What is theoryIdeasfacts observedunit of analysissubjectpredictIt is an explanation of why things happen the way that they doInvestigators strive to remove the economical desire from their work Social class is the basis for conflict in society as some classes are dominant over othersDeductiveinductive reasoningDeductive reasoning is using existing information to reach a conclusion o Conclusion must be based on information previously presented and cannot contain new informationInductive reasoning o Process of reasoning in which conclusion is very likely to be true given the premises To ascribe policies in relations to type based on limited observations of particular tokens or to formulate laws of recurring patterns o Deductive reasoning does not make assumptionsBoth types are sued fairly frequently o Normative influences can hold quite a bit of sway Page 1 of 11Page 2 of 11o In most disciplines hypothesis can affect opinion greatly o The method fundamentally depends on performance andor experimental tests or imperial examination of data in a structured way in order to validate or refute the predictions o Explanations of why things happen are models of reality Purpose of theory and policyWe have it because it will simplify and clarify our thinking of government and politicsHelp identify important political forces in societyTo direct inquiry into politicsSuggest explanations for political advantages and outcomes Structuralism theoriesShare the assumption that the outcome of public policy is largely but not solely determined by ten nature of structure or structure of politics bureaucracy or societyExamples of structuralist theories o Marxism o Environmental determinism o Institutionalism o Incremetnalism o Systems theory o Policy is open to influence in a competitive environment o Dynamic theories share an assumption that policy is open to influence in a competitive environmentPluralismGame theoryPublic choice o Structuralist theoriesDivision of society into classes the relationship to the means of production Access to capital to make cash moneyClass is a basis for conflictClass and quality you have subordinate and ordinate causes o Legitimation policiesThere is an attention paid by states to general needs to support the general interest of capital by providing subordinate classes with benefits to reduce their dissatisfaction with the classes created with a capitalist economyAccumulation policies directly support profitdriven business activity o Ideology reinforces structural mechanisms in society Globalization FrameworkInternational treaty in terms of trade and expansion in technology have made the state ineffectual in many policy areas Institutionalism and incrementalismPolicy outcomes are determined by the structural configuration by the state itselfIncrementalism refers to slow and small adjustments to past decisionsInfluence is the kind of adoptive policies by the stateFunctionalism o Behaviour fuels the system o Inputs such as political demands or policies influence the process Page 2 of 11
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