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Political Studies
POLS 262
Jason Zorbas

January 6, 2012 There is no class on January 13, 2012. Global Governance vs. International Relations - One of the ways to define global governance is to define based on the way it is most often used. - International relations refers to contact and relationships between two or more countries. o Its all about nations. - For centuries, this was the accurate way to look at the world it was dominated by states and countries. o How they got along was most important. However, during the last two decades, the end of the Soviet Union occurred, which ended the Cold War. o There are going to be new actors in the world arena. o Administrators would also be actors. o International organizations, made up of other countries, such as the UN, EU, NATO, o Transnational corporations are another example. o Anyone who is not a country is a non-state actor. - Transnational Criminal Organizations o They are becoming influential. - Subnational organizations o Quebec is an example. - Global governance is not just about creating a world government. - Liberalism, Marxism, realism and feminism are all theoretical ideas of how global governance works. - Everyone is looking out for themselves, as far as realists are concerned. - Liberalism operates on a totally different premise when it comes to global governance. o Liberals look at global governance and say world is becoming more interconnected because we are all ultimately the same (we are all human beings). o As human beings, we all have certain rights. o Our rights as people, or human beings, transcend national boundaries and they are more important than a countrys laws. - Marxism o Marxists say that everything liberals and realists say is crap. o People are exploited everywhere. o People who are exploited are the workers by the owners and/or bosses. o On the international level, they say whats happening now that this method of exploitation, capitalism, is being exploited all around the world. o Reinforce the super structures that create the exploitations in the first place. o Marxists look at the international economic system everyone believes it is about making money. Capitalism is the essential foundation of society. Accumulation of wealth is necessary in order to survive. o Capitalism is effective because everyone buys into the system. o Feminism was an ideological premise originally rooted at the federal level. - Linguistic structure Page 1 of 37 o Words and ideas we use to define global governance, etc., are skewered all sorts of patriarchal references. - Each one of these views is a unique view of the world, and they dont really overlap. January 9, 2012 UN - Comprehensive and almost every nation is part of it. - Within the structure of the UN, and every single country gets to vote on it. - However, the real power is not in general assembly. It is concentrated in the Security Council. - The Security Council has permanent and non-permanent members. o Non-permanent members do not count or matter. o Five permanent members: United States. China. France. Britain. Russia. o They have the power to veto things. o Any single motion can be killed by any permanent member. o The UN does not have much power. o UN is a con-federal system. Component parts (countries) have all the powers. UN only has power if countries let them have power. Only time they have real power is when the Security Council approves military intervention. EU/European Union - Hybrid between federal and con-federal system. - In many ways, the EU doesnt have any real power. However, the EU has been moving to strengthen institutions within it, such as Parliament, and its courts. - The EU court has been binding in all countries, and all countries have acknowledged it. - The Euro is set by the European Central Bank. - The EU is a union of 27 European countries. NATO/North Atlantic Treaty Organization - Military alliance. - Holdover from Cold War. - Struggling to figure out why its still around and was originally formed to fight Russia. - When it comes to the worlds major financial institutions, - WTO/National Bank/IMF (three different organizations) are part of a neo-liberal economic agenda. o Reductions to barriers for trade and business. o Reduction of regulations. o Reduction of the size of government. o They promote world trade and reduction of barriers towards world trade. o By doing so, the economy will once again grow. OPEC Page 2 of 37 - Cartel of really big oil-producing nations. - Sets price of oil. - Incredibly powerful organization because everyone needs oil - Americans dislike the idea that OPEC has the power, and is looking for alternatives from OPEC. - Note: AOS/AU. AU is the African Union and the OAS is the Organization of American States. They are essentially clubs. Realism - Unpacking Realism o Realism is an international theory that purports to explain why things happen the way they do in the world. Why countries make treaties, etc. o Realism attempts to explain all of that and why. o All types of realism is based on the basic idea of realistic expectations. We should look at the world for what it is, and the worlds countries should act as their own #1. o For all intents and purposes, realists believe every country is out for its own best interests. The promotion of your country should be the focus of all of your countrys interests. For example, one country may provide foreign aid to another country for their resources. o Realism is born in response to idealism and best exemplified by Woodrow Wilson. You could change the behaviour of international actors by creating international structures. League of Nations was created, and eventually evolved into the UN. In many ways, the death knell of idealism was WWII. o Realism was dominant ideology of the United States. As a dominant ideology of the U.S., it became the dominant ideology of the West (U.S. and its allies). It is better to have a dictator than a communist regime. It makes total sense from a realist perspective. Communists really did want to take over the world, and capitalists really wanted to destroy communism. They were both expansionistic. From a realist perspective, anything you had to do to promote your own interests was okay. - Classical Realism o Three main points: Stateism: focus is on the state and its survival. Self-help: the only state you can depend on is your own. Survival: the whole point of the system is your own countrys survival. - Neo-Realism and Structural Realism - Neoclassical Realism January 11, 2012 Classical Realism - There are variants of classical realism. Page 3 of 37 - Classical realism of Machiavelli and there is a contemporary classical realism (there are people who still believe in it today). - Realists believe that international realism is based on human nature. - What is human nature? o Classical realists by and large take a conservative view of human nature. o Traditional conservatives believe traditional human nature is flawed. Therefore, you cannot depend on anything, except yourself. - Humans need to prioritize their own survival, thus prioritizing themselves. - Classical realists believe that morality needs to be confined to the levels of the state. o States governments can be moral. o States governments can create moral structure within themselves. o However, to then take that morality that you do within your own country and project it into international relations is immoral. It is immoral because, in doing so, you harm the one entity capable of emitting morality because you are disadvantaging yourself in the international arena. The international arena cannot be moral. Contemporary Classical Realists - Soft power considerations (asking other countries for help). o Hard power physically coerce military into action. o The strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must. Structural Realism (or neo-realism) - Hans Morganthau was a prominent contemporary classical realist thinker. - Based on same premise as classical realism but human nature isnt the problem. Instead, it is the structure of
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