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POLS 368 (22)

The 60s

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Political Studies
POLS 368
Martin Gaal

February 12, 2013 February-12-13 11:35 AM Cuban Missile Crisis - It ended without war. There was an important arms agreement that was reached during the later 60s. - The Hotline Agreement ○ To create a hotline between Washington and Moscow. ○ If things ever got that tense again, they'd have a last chance to communicate (something that couldn't be interfered with by a third party).  Both could be worried about China. - The U.S. was also instrumental in the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, signed in 1963, and it prohibited the test of nuclear weapons above ground. ○ Two important consequences:  Limit on size of nuclear test you could undertake.  Some of the worst damage could by halted, at least by the signatory states.  France and China refused to sign.  For the Soviets, Americans and British, this was a very significant and symbolic type of agreement. □ This type of agreement would not have existed in the 50s. - Outer Space Treaty ○ It was an agreement not to put missiles on Mars.  Both the Chinese and the French refused to sign, again. □ They said it preserves a hegemony by the Soviet Union and the U.S.A. that is intolerable. □ Both said they'd continue to test above ground. - Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty - Later on, it becomes important. - One part permitted existing nuclear powers not to provide nuclear weapons or materials to non-nuclear powers.  The flipside committed non-nuclear powers not to obtain nuclear weapons or new materials to be used for the development of nuclear weapons. - Vietnam War - The Vietnamese war was surfacing in the late 50s.  Vietnam was an important part of the change in American view (shift to the third world).  It was thought that if the Soviets were to start a war, it would be over Europe and a confrontation over NATO and the Warsaw Pact. - The United States eventually began to support dictators with terrible human rights records simply if they were anti-Communist. - The United States got sucked into a conflict in which its interests weren't really a stake, and it lost a lot of lives needlessly.  Ever since this war, Congress would have been reluctant to enter wars in which there was no common goal. The Beginnings of Vietnam Vietnam was a French colony. - Throughout the 20th century up until World War II, when the Japanese overran Southeast Asia, they also overran Vietnam, thus kicking France out. - It eventually turned Vietnam into a Soviet state. - When the Japanese surrendered, they were forced to withdraw from Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Korea, etc. Asia, including Vietnam, Korea, etc. - When the Japanese withdrew, the French decided to come back and restore the control of administration over Vietnam, prior to the Japanese conflict. - Problem: while the Japanese had occupied Vietnam, an active nationalistic and Communist movement had grown up to resist the Japanese. - Vietminh - Vietnamese guerrillas. - They mounted an offensive against the French in 1954, at Dienbienphu.  Despite the number of French troops, France held off for a third time because of the Vietminh. - The French public got fed up with this whole distant mission in
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