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POLS 368 (22)

Presidential Administrations Following the Collapse of the Soviet Union

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University of Saskatchewan
Political Studies
POLS 368
Martin Gaal

Presidential Administrations Following the Collapse of the Soviet Union March-12-13 11:35 AM George H.W. Bush, continued. - We had to continue to live in a post-socialist world. - Over time, the Soviet Union became weaker and weaker, and simply collapsed. ○ The republics that had been a part of it declared it as dead. - American policy was a policy of post-containment. ○ Sometime, they said it was "beyond containment." ○ What was significant was that the U.S. didn't immediately see that there was nothing to contain.  Some would say that the U.S. would create an enemy if it didn't have one.  Others would say that the U.S. wouldn't know what to do if it didn't have one. - In a document that was released by the administration, the administration said: ○ "We have within our grasps an extraordinary opportunity to build a new international system in accordance with our values and ideas as uncertainties bubble around us. Never before has the world looked to the American example, and today, in a rapidly changing world, American leadership is indispensable." ○ The document was likely written by Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney.  We'd hear this document again (or something similar to it) when George W. Bush became president. Bill Clinton - In 1992, Bill Clinton defeated George Bush, who was seeking a second term, based on domestic concerns. ○ Bill Clinton challenged him on domestic issues, such as the economy and environment. - In 1994, Bill Clinton, who became president in 1993, identified five dangers that the U.S. faced: ○ Global economy and free trade.  Trade barriers. □ Clinton was (and still is) an advocate of free trade.  He thought it was good for everybody's economy, including the U.S. ◊ There were Democrats within his own lame party that ◊ There were Democrats within his own lame party that believed that the U.S. would lose jobs to countries like Mexico.  Democrats had not traditionally been free trades… it was the Republicans who were more interested in free trade.  The labour movement was also against free trade, because they thought wages would be less in the U.S. because companies could hire "cheap labour."  Most Democrats supported free trade however. □ While it was negotiated under George H.W. Bush's administration, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was signed and ratified once Clinton became president.  APEC (Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation) □ A lot of trade barriers will either be eliminated or reduced by 2020. □ Forum for 21 Asia Pacific countries.  FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas) □ Signed in 1994. □ Barriers to trade dissolved in a significant way. □ Whether free trade is a good thing or bad thing, it was a Clinton thing. ○ Global and local environmental threats.  It probably didn't hurt that he had Al Gore as his vice president, whose emphasis was and still is the environment.  Much harder to deal with. □ Some of the things to do to reduce greenhouse gases was to place expensive taxes on manufacturers. □ Nonetheless, the U.S. negotiated the 1997 Kyoto Accord in an attempt to reduce greenhouse gases.  The U.S. signed the deal, but did not ratify the deal.  Canada pulled out of it in 2011.  China and India never intended to join.  A number of third-world countries said that it did not have the money/resources to join. ◊ It costs a lot of cash money to place environmental controls. ◊ The countries demanded aid and support from others in order to put environmental controls in place. □ At the time, when the Kyoto Accord was agreed upon, when
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