U.S. Reaction to 9/11
March-19-13 11:34 AM
U.S. reaction to 9/11
- The norm for taking people to prison for war crimes was to follow the Geneva
○ You must meet certain criteria.
- You have to have a fixed and distinctive sign.
○ Many of those were brought to Guantanamo Bay in Cuba.
- The United States at least maintained that they didn't comply with the laws of
- If you were to treat them as criminals…
○ The U.S. argued that they fell between the cracks.
○ The U.S. recognized the Vietcong as insurgency in Vietnam.
- If the U.S. had brought "terror suspects" to the U.S., they would have some
specific rights that pertain to American citizens.
○ So, the government took them to Cuba on foreign laws.
○ They were "unlawful combatants."
No right to a trial.
Virtually no rights.
○ We now know how they were treated.
They were tortured?
- Camp X-ray
○ Prisoners lived in cages?
○ The climate was such that it wasn't exactly inhumane… by virtue of
○ How did they justify it?
The U.S. prevented the Red Cross from entering.
Congress eventually sent investigators to Cuba to see how prisoners
○ Legal defence offered by U.S. for enhanced interrogation was provided by
Berkeley professor John Yoo.
Drafted infamous memo in which he said that torture… in order to
comprise torture, has to reach a point of organ failure (or death) for
one being tortured.
□ Anything short of that didn't count.
○ Bush administration said it reserved the right to contravene Geneva
Convention if it had to.
It also didn't care about what the rest of the world thought of it. It also didn't care about what the rest of the world thought of it.
○ Methods of interrogation:
□ Open face slap!
□ Forced people to stand in shackles for 40 hours.
□ If you fell, they'd drag you back up an make you restart.
People were forced to stand at 50°F… naked!
□ There was a paper published that told people how low you could
keep the temperature without killing people.
□ They claim they only used three times, but nobody knows how
many times that has occurred.
□ This kept them outside of American civil or military law.
○ Camp X-ray was closed after a short period of time.
- Camp Delta
○ Current camp for tortures?
○ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (Darth Vader of Bush