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U.S. Reaction to 9/11

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Political Studies
POLS 368
Martin Gaal

U.S. Reaction to 9/11 March-19-13 11:34 AM U.S. reaction to 9/11 - The norm for taking people to prison for war crimes was to follow the Geneva Convention. ○ You must meet certain criteria. - You have to have a fixed and distinctive sign. ○ Many of those were brought to Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. - The United States at least maintained that they didn't comply with the laws of war? - If you were to treat them as criminals… ○ The U.S. argued that they fell between the cracks. ○ The U.S. recognized the Vietcong as insurgency in Vietnam. - If the U.S. had brought "terror suspects" to the U.S., they would have some specific rights that pertain to American citizens. ○ So, the government took them to Cuba on foreign laws. ○ They were "unlawful combatants."  No right to a trial.  Virtually no rights. ○ We now know how they were treated.  They were tortured? - Camp X-ray ○ Prisoners lived in cages? ○ The climate was such that it wasn't exactly inhumane… by virtue of temperature. ○ How did they justify it?  The U.S. prevented the Red Cross from entering.  Congress eventually sent investigators to Cuba to see how prisoners were treated. ○ Legal defence offered by U.S. for enhanced interrogation was provided by Berkeley professor John Yoo.  Drafted infamous memo in which he said that torture… in order to comprise torture, has to reach a point of organ failure (or death) for one being tortured. □ Anything short of that didn't count. ○ Bush administration said it reserved the right to contravene Geneva Convention if it had to.  It also didn't care about what the rest of the world thought of it.  It also didn't care about what the rest of the world thought of it. ○ Methods of interrogation:  Face slap! □ Open face slap!  Shackled □ Forced people to stand in shackles for 40 hours. □ If you fell, they'd drag you back up an make you restart.  People were forced to stand at 50°F… naked! □ There was a paper published that told people how low you could keep the temperature without killing people.  Waterboarding □ They claim they only used three times, but nobody knows how many times that has occurred. □ This kept them outside of American civil or military law. ○ Camp X-ray was closed after a short period of time. - Camp Delta ○ Current camp for tortures? ○ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (Darth Vader of Bush
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