PSY 120 Lecture Notes - Deductive Reasoning, North South Mrt Line, Inductive Reasoning

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Psychology 110
Chapter Nine:
Thinking and
Thinking in Everyday Living
1. Planning: sometimes it becomes routine, but it takes a little while to get back into it.
2. Making decisions: such as getting dressed, how to get somewhere, what to do
3. Constructing explanations:
4. Analyzing relationships:
5. Organizing and reorganizing our mental world
I. Thought: Using What We Know
A. The Elements of Cognition
1. Concept
a. Definition: a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having
common properties.
b. Basic concepts: have a moderate number of instances and are easier to acquire than those that have
few or many instances
c. Prototype: a representative example of the concept. Culture based
2. Propositions: units of meaning that are made up of concepts express unitary ideas
3. Cognitive schemas: an intergraded mental network of knowledge, associations, beliefs, and
expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world
4. Mental images: a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents. A lot of the
time it is visual
B. How Conscious Is Thought?
Conscious thought is deliberate; it has a purpose [goal] and is in full awareness
1. Subconscious and nonconscious thinking
a. Subconscious processes “without thinking”
i. Not in awareness but can pull it up really quick
ii. Allows us to handle more information and handle more complex tasks
b. Non-conscious processes out of awareness
i. Guides you towards a hunch feeling
ii. You become conscious and aware of a situation insight
iii. Implicit Learning: learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge without being aware of
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