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psychology 110 - March 16 2010.docx

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PSY 120
Donna Darbellay

Psychology 110 1 March 16 2010 Verbal memory, verbal ability, numeric ability, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed; are operation definitions of intelligence. Chapter 15 Stress: subjective experience that can include sudden traumatic experiences, continuing pressures that seem uncontrollable, and small irritations that wear you down Measuring stress  Daily stressors or hassles can add up to significant stress over time o People tend to seek help for major life events and not hasseles, which helps to explain deterinal events Stress-Illness Mystery - Stressors: stressful experiences or situations - Common stressors: o Work-related problems o Noise o Bereavement and loss o Poverty, powerlessness, and low status o Recent immigration - Chronic stress lasting a month or more boost risk of catching a cold - No direct relation between chronic stressors and illness o Does not affect everyone the same way - Three factors that influence responses to stressors: 1. Individual physiological differences 2. Psychological factors 3. Peoples behaviors under stress Psychology 110 2 March 16 2010 Physiology of stress - General apadation syndrome [Hans Selye] o A series of psychological responses to stressors that occurs in three stages i. Alarm stage a. Body mobilizes the sympathetic nervous system causes the body to mobilize to meet the immediate threat or stressor b. Paraspythering slows down, sympathetic speeds up ii. Resistance phase a. Body attempts to resist or cope with stressor that cannot be avoided b. Physiciolical alarm responses occur but increase vulnerability to other stressors iii. Exhaustion phase a. Persistent stress depletes the body of energy b. Increased vulnerability to physical problems and illness Stress and body - HPA [hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex] axis o A system activated to energize the body to respond to stressors  Crucial for short term stress responses o Hypothalamus: sends chemical messengers to pituitary o Pituitary: the promotes the adrenal cortex to produce coristol and hormones Mind-body link - Psychoneuroimmunology [PNI] Psychology 110 3 March 16 2010 o The study of relationships among psychology, the nervous and endocrine systems, and the immune system o Study antigens, which are white blood cells designed to recognize foreign or harmful substances and destroy them o Chronic stress weakens or suppresses the immune system  Due to being activated all the time  Feelings of stress can be as important as actual stress Psychology of Stress - What is the role of psychological factors in stress and health? o Personality is not linked to risk of cancer o Negative emotions can influences course of illness and recovery once a person has some type of disease or virus o Negative emotions do not cause illness, with a few exceptions Hostility and depressions - Cynical and antagonistic hostility increases risk of heart disease - Clinical depression also linked increased risk of heart attack Positive emotions - Positive emotions can have healthful benefits - Longitudinal study of 180 catholic nuns found that longevity was related to frequency of positive emotions - Positive emotions may counteract high arousal caused by negative emotions/chronic stress - May be associated with more social support and creative problem solving Psychology 110 4 March 16 2010 Managing negative emotions - Suppression of negative emotions: can have detrimental health affects o Decreased levels of white blood cells - Studies of loneliness o Social [longing for friends] versus emotional [longing for significant others] loneliness o Eating patterns change when people were lonely o Lonely individuals may discourage relationships by judgmental attitudes o Men may be lonelier the women Benefits of confession and letting go - Confession: divulging private thoughts that make you ashamed or depressed, linked to better health - Forgiveness: as a strategy to let go o
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