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Psychology 110 - March 11 2010.docx

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PSY 120
Donna Darbellay

Psychology 110 March 11, 2010 Chapter Fourteen Stages of cognitive development 1 i. Sensor motor ii. Preoperational iii. Concrete operations iv. Formal operations Socio-cultural influences Ø Vygotsky emphasized socio-cultural influences on cognitive development in children o Mental representations of the world developed through culture and language o Private speech: how children talk to themselves to direct their own behaviour Ø Over time, private speech becomes internalized an silent Current Views on Development Ø Current views on cognitive development i. Cognitive abilities develop in continuous, overlapping waves rather than discrete stages ii. Children understand far more than Piaget gave them credit for – and some adults understand far less iii. Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought iv. Cognitive development is spurred by the growing speed and efficiency of information processing v. Cognitive development is greatly affected by a child’s culture Learning how to Be Good Ø Children’s ability to understand right from wrong [reasoning about moral dilemmas] evolves with cognitive abilities [Kohlberg] Ø Methods used to enforce moral standards: o Power assertion [demandingness]: parent uses punishment and authority to correct child’s misbehaviour o Induction [responsiveness]: parent appeals to child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting child’s misbehaviour Gender Development Psychology 110 March 11, 2010 Chapter Fourteen Ø Gender identity: the fundamental sense of being male or female; independent of whether a person conforms to the social and cultural rules of gender. 2 Ø Gender typing: the process by which children learn the abilities, interest, and behaviours associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture. Complexity and Gender Ø Complexity evident in cases that do not fir categories of male and female o Intersex conditions: condition occurring where chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be born with ambiguous genitals or genitals that conflict with chromosomes [hermaphrodites] o Transgender: term describing category of people who do not fit comfortably into usual categories of male and female Influences on Gender Development Ø Biological influences: early play and toy preferences have a basic in prenatal hormones [androgens], genes or brain organization Ø Cognitive influences: o Toy preferences are based on gender schemas Ø Ridged between age 5-7 o Early recognition that there are two sexes [faces] Ø Nervously laughs when father comes at them with a still face, but cries when mother does o Change behaviours to conform to category they label themselves as Ø Learning influences: o Gender socialization instills messages about what boys and girls are supposed to do Ø Signals provided very early on as to how to treat the child based on actions, clothing, portrayals o Gender appropriate play may be reinforced by parents, teachers, and peers Ø Girls = dolls boys  dolls Ø Boys = trucks girls  trucks o Beliefs about “natural” talents for males and females also expressed Adolescence Psychology 110 March 11, 2010 Chapter Fourteen Ø Adolescence: period of development between puberty and adulthood. There are cultural variations in the duration of adolescence according to when youth are expected to assume adult responsibilities Ø Puberty: age a person becomes capable of sexual reproduction: depending on genetic and environmental factors o Hormones are no longer the same in boys and girls Physiology of Adolescence Ø Females o Development of breasts o Menarche: onset of menstruation: depends on critical level of body fat for onset Ø Males o Onset of nocturnal emissions and growth of testes, scrotum, and pen
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