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Psychology 110 - January 05 2010.docx

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PSY 120
Donna Darbellay

Psychology 110 1 01/05/2010 Chapter Nine: Thinking and Intelligence Introduction: Thinking in Everyday Living 1. Planning: sometimes it becomes routine, but it takes a little while to get back into it. 2. Making decisions: such as getting dressed, how to get somewhere, what to do 3. Constructing explanations: 4. Analyzing relationships: 5. Organizing and reorganizing our mental world I. Thought: Using What We Know A. The Elements of Cognition 1. Concept a. Definition: a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties. b. Basic concepts: have a moderate number of instances and are easier to acquire than those that have few or many instances c. Prototype: a representative example of the concept. Culture based 2. Propositions: units of meaning that are made up of concepts express unitary ideas 3. Cognitive schemas: an intergraded mental network of knowledge, associations, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world 4. Mental images: a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents. A lot of the time it is visual B. How Conscious Is Thought? Conscious thought is deliberate; it has a purpose [goal] and is in full awareness 1. Subconscious and nonconscious thinking a. Subconscious processes – “without thinking” i. Not in awareness – but can pull it up really quick ii. Allows us to handle more information and handle more complex tasks b. Non-conscious processes – out of awareness i. Guides you towards a hunch – feeling ii. You become conscious and aware of a situation – insight iii. Implicit Learning: learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge without being aware of Psychology 110 2 01/05/2010 how you did so 2. Mindlessness: mental inflexibility, inertia, and obliviousness to the present context a. Rigid belief – not really non-consciousness – inflexible - active b. Reactive II. Reasoning Rationally R
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