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Psychology 110 - January 19 2010.docx

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PSY 120
Donna Darbellay

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Psychology 110 1 January 19 2010 I. Introduction of the chapter  Reconstructing the past o The capacity to retain and retrieve information o The changes in the structures that account for this capacity o Reconstructive process  Memory and the power of suggestion – memories can be changed  In pursuit of memory – how to remember things better  The three-box model of memory  The biology of memory  How we remember  Why we forget  Autobiographic memories II. Reconstructing the past A. Memory: the capacity to retain and retrieve information and the structures associated with the capacity B. The Manufacture [making] of memory: many metaphors over time that don’t acknowledge that memory is selective 1. Memory is not a video recording Sensation  short 2. Memory is reconstructive [Bartlett] – Bartlett’s (1932) studies and reconstructive term memory  memory long term memory a. Source misattributions – inability to distinguish what you originally experience from what you heard later we were told about the event b. H.M always attempts to reconstruct his recent past in order to explain recent events i. Had to remove his Hippocrates, due to seizers, so he could not get from short term memory to long term C. The Fading Flashbulb 1. Vivid, detailed memories for an even that was a surprising and emotional even of nation or international significance 2. Usually shocking, or tragic evens hold a special place in memory 3. Flashbulb memories: characterized by surprise, illumination, and seemingly photographic detail D. The conditions of confabulation 1. Confabulation: a. confusion of an even that happened to someone else with on that happened to you [or vice versa] b. Belief that you remember something when it never actually happened False memories can be stable over time as true ones 2. Circumstances under which confabulation is likely to occur a. The person has thought about the imagined event many times b. The image of the event contains many details Psychology 110 2 January 19 2010 c. The event is easy to imagine d. The person focuses on one’s emotional reaction to the event rather than on what actually happened 3. False memories can be stable over time as true memories III. Memory and the power of suggestion 1. They Eyewitness on Trial a. People fill in missing pieces from memories, so eyewitness testimony can be incorrect b. Cases based solely on eyewitness testimony are risky c. Loftus and Palmer i. Participants who read smashed estimated speed as faster than hit or contacted ii. Later asked if there was any broken glass, participants who read smashed were more likely to answer yes than those who read hit or contacted iii. There was no broken glass iv. Participants reconstructive the even based on [misleading] post events information d. Leading questions, suggestive comments … ect influence memory for a witnessed event 2. Children’s testimony a. Martinsville day care center case b. Children do remember even accurately, but they will report events that never happened c. Conditions under which children are likely to be a susceptible to suggestion i. Preschoolers more susceptible than school-aged children ii. Children tend to conform to interviews expectations iii. Repeated questioni
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