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Psychology 110 - March 02 2010.docx

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PSY 120
Donna Darbellay

Psychology 110 March 2 2010 Modern Study of Personality 1 Ø Many unscientific test of personality still exist  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Ø Objective inventories: forced choice and self report  Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses  Typically included scales on which people are asked to rate themselves Ø Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory [MMPI]  Ten traits  Dysfunction - pathology Ø Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire [MPQ]  Four broad traits, eleven specific traits  Personality pattern  One big problem: individuals can lie – depending on the person being honest  Some information is lost, for the most part they are good Core Personality Traits  Allport: evaluated personality traits based on their influence on a person’s life ‡ Central traits: aspects of personality that reflect a characteristic way of behaving, dealing with others, and reacting to new situations  They do not change ‡ Secondary traits: changeable aspects of personality  They change often  Factor analysis: often used to identify clusters of behaviors that are measured by a common underlying factor ‡ Examines the inter-correlations of different traits  The Big Five: most researchers of the centrality of five core traits in personality ‡ Cattel was a leader in this area – was six now there is five ‡ Robust traits i. Extroversion versus introversion  Extroversion: outgoing  Introversion: quiet, cautious ii. Neuroticism [ negative emotionality] versus emotional stability  Neuroticism: worry  Emotional stability: optimistic iii. Agreeableness verses antagonism  Agreeableness: cooperative  Antagonism: irritable iv. Conscientiousness versus impulsiveness  Conscientiousness: responsible – fatality – commitment  Impulsiveness: fickle – not committed – irresponsible v. Openness to experience versus resistance to new experience  Openness: willing to experiences We are not born bad or good, we just have different limits Psychology 110 March 2 2010  Resistance: rigid 2  Culture can influence the expression of traits and how they are reflected in language [even nonverbal signs]  Big five are relatively stable, but may reflect maturational changes over lifespan ‡ As we age we worry less and are more responsible Genetic influences on Personality  What aspects of personality may have an inherited component?  Temperaments: physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways  Present in infancy and in many nonhuman species and assumed to be innate  Include reactivity, soothability, impulsivity, positive and negative emotionality  Heredity and Traits  Heritability: a statistical estimate of the proportion of the totally variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a g
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