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Psychology 110 - November 26 2009.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 120
Professor
Donna Darbellay
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 110 1 November 26th 2009 III. Social Influence on Beliefs A. Social cognition 1. how people’s perceptions of themselves and others affect their relationships 2. how the social environment influences your thoughts, beliefs, and values B. Attributions 1. Attribution theory – the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other’s behaviour by attribution causes the behaviour to a situation or disposition - Attempts to explain behaviour - No critical thinking 2. Two types of attributions a. Situational attribution – we are identifying the cause of an action as something in the situation or environment - Due to the situation b. Dispositional Attributions – we are identifying the cause of an action as something in the person, such as a traitor motive - Trait of the individual c. Fundamental attributions error – the tendency, in explaining other people’s behaviour, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation d. Self-serving bias – the tendency, in explaining our own behaviour, to take credit for our good actions and rationalize our mistakes e. group-Serving bias – the tendency to explain favourably the behaviours of members of groups to which we belong f. Just-World Hypothesis – the notion that many people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served; that bad people are punished, good people are rewarded [can lead to blaming an honest victim] Attributions "why is Aurelia behaving like a dimwit?" Situational Dispostional "she is under pressure" "she's self-involved and cluless Fundamental Attribution Error ignoring influence of situation on behaviour and emphasizing personallity traits alone Psychology 110 2 November 26th 2009 C. Attitudes 1. Attitudes are a belief about people, groups, ideas or others – relatively stable opinions, both affective and rational content a. Explicit attitudes – we are aware of them, they shape out conscious decisions and actions, can be measured on self-reporting questionnaires i. Influence behaviour b. Implicit attitudes – we are unaware of them, they may influence our behaviour in ways we do not recognize, and they are measured in varies indirect ways i. Influence behaviour 2. Attitudes are not always based on reason 3. Attitudes change a. New experiences –new evidence b. To resolve cognitive dissonance – if you have conflicting attitudes you
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