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Lecture

Ch11 - Abnormal Behaviour Across the Lifespan

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 223
Professor
Deb Cooke
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 11: Abnormal Behaviour Across the Lifespan 11 - 1 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR ACROSS THE LIFESPAN • The psychological problems experienced by children and young people are often especially poignant in that they affect children at a time in their lives when they have relatively little ability to cope. • Some problems of childhood prevent children from reaching their potential; others mirror the problems faced by adults. • Finally, there are some problems unique to childhood or disorders that manifest themselves differently in children compared to adults. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 2 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR ACROSS THE LIFESPAN • What is considered normal or abnormal for children must be considered in light of developmental issues in addition to factors such as ethnicity or gender. What is acceptable behaviour at one age becomes unacceptable as the child grows older • 14% of children and adolescents have a mental disorder • Four most common categories are: anxiety disorders, conduct disorders, ADHD, and depressive disorders. These account for 90% of all mental disorders in children. • Children who have internalized problems, such as anxiety and depression, are at a higher risk of going untreated than those with externalized problems which tend to be disruptive or annoying to others. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 3 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD): Disorders of childhood that involve markedly impaired behaviour or functioning in multiple areas of development. •PDD’s become apparent in the first few years of life and are often associated with mental retardation. •PDD’s are also referred to as autistic spectrum disorder. It is a chronic, and lifelong condition. •Characterized by pervasive deficits in the ability to relate to and communicate with others, and by a restricted range of activities and interests. •They lack the ability to relate to others and seem to live in their own private worlds. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 4 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Features of Autism • Language and communication problems such as echolalia, pronoun reversal, using words that only those who have intimate knowledge of the child can understand, and tendency to raise the voice at the end of a sentence • Ritualistic, stereotyped behaviour such as arm flapping, twirling, rocking back and forth with their arms around their knees • May engage in self-mutilation activities such as banging their head, biting themselves, or pulling their hair • Bound by ritual and ‘preservation of sameness’ Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 5 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Autism • Theoretical Perspectives • Leo Kanner, Betttelheim-cold, detached parents resulting in extreme self-absorption as a defence mechanism against rejection and isolation • O. Ivar Lovaas-autistic children may have perceptual difficulties that limit them to only processing one stimulus at a time. They do not associate their primary needs with their caregivers • Cognitive Theories • Theory of Mind hypothesis-lack empathy • Neurodevelopmental Deficits-a period of overgrowth in brain size early in postnatal development, followed by significantly slower growth resulting in smaller brain size • Lateralization-corpus callosum is smaller in autistic children • Treatment-early intervention is most important • Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 6 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology MENTAL RETARDATION Mental retardation involves a broad delay in the development of cognitive and social functioning. Three criteria in DSM are IQ of 70 or below, impaired functioning of adaptive behaviour, and onset before the age of 18 Levels of Retardation • Mild-IQ range of 55-70, may reach a grade 6 level • Moderate-IQ range of 40-55, - a grade 2 level • Severe-IQ range of 25-40, basic self care • Profound-IQ range below 25, very limited abilities Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 7 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology MENTAL RETARDATION Causes of Mental Retardation • Down Syndrome-most common chromosomal abnormality (extra 21 chromosome) resulting in mental retardation • Fragile X Syndrome-most common type of inherited (genetic) mental retardation caused by a mutated gene on the X sex chromosome • Phenylketonuria (PKU)-intolerance to an amino acid • Tay-Sachs disease-caused by a recessive gene on chromosome 15. Mostly afflicts Jews of Eastern European ancestry and French Canadians from the Gaspe region of Quebec. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 8 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology MENTAL RETARDATION Causes of Mental Retardation • Prenatal Factors • Cytomegalovirus-maternal disease of the herpes virus • Syphilis, genital herpes, and rubella • Drugs and alcohol consumed during pregnancy • Maternal smoking implicated in ADHD and premature births • Birth complications, brain infections, and ingestion of toxins • Cultural-Familial causes • Cultural-familial retardation-an impoverished home, a social environment that is not intellectually stimulating, and parental neglect or abuse contribute to a vicious cycle • Intervention • Mainstreaming, providing enriched learning experiences such as those provided in the Aboriginal Head Start program Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.chniques, day programs, social skills11 - 9 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology A CLOSER LOOK: SAVANT SYNDROME • Savant Syndrome describes a condition where a person with autism or mental retardation is able to perform exceptionally in a specific domain such as mathematics. • Occurs in about 0.06% of retarded individuals and is closely linked to infantile autism. • Occurs about six times more frequently in males than females. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 10 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology LEARNING DISORDERS • Learning Disorder: Noted deficiency in a specific learning ability, given that the individual is of at least average learning potential and has had exposure to quality learning opportunities. • Dyslexia: A type of learning disorder characterized by impaired reading ability that may involve difficulty with the alphabet or spelling. It is the most common type of learning disability. (80%) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 - 11 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology LEARNING DISORDERS • Types of Learning Disorders • Mathematics Disorder-dyscalcula • Disorders of Written Expression-dysgraphia • Reading Disorder-Dyslexia • Theoretical Perspectives • Neurobiological-underlying brain dysfunctions involving problems with visual or auditory sensation and perception • Genetic factors • Intervention • Individual Education Plan involving a supp
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