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Lecture

Chapter 6 - Personality Disorders

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 223
Professor
Deb Cooke
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 6: Personality Disorders 6 - 1 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology WHAT ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS? • All of us have particular styles of behaviour and ways of relating to others. Some of us are shy; others more social. Some of us are orderly; others sloppy. • When these behaviour patterns become so inflexible or maladaptive that they cause significant personal distress or impair functioning in the social or occupational realms, their behaviour pattern may be diagnosed as a personality disorder. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 2 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology WHAT ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS? • Types of abnormal behaviour patterns involving excessively rigid patterns of behaviour or ways of relating to others that ultimately become self-defeating because their rigidity prevents adjustment to external demands. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 3 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS Ego Syntonic: Behaviour or feelings that are perceived as natural or compatible parts of the self. (personality disorders) Ego Dystonic: Behaviour or feelings that are perceived to be foreign or alien to one‘s self-identity. (anxiety and mood disorders) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 4 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS Previously, PD‘s were grouped in clusters: • CLUSTER A: odd or eccentric disorders (Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal) • CLUSTER B: dramatic, emotional, or erratic disorders (Antisocial, Narcissistic, Borderline, Histrionic) • CLUSTER C: anxious or fearful disorders (Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 5 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • In the DSM-V all of this has been revamped. Currently, the following PDs are still being listed:  Borderline Personality Disorder  Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder  Avoidant Personality Disorder  Schizotypal Personality Disorder  Antisocial Personality Disorder (Dyssocial)  Narcissistic Personality Disorder  Personality Disorder Trait Specified Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 6 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS Changes to the DSM-5: Having the proposed trait system eliminates the need for ―Not Otherwise Specified‖ personality disorder diagnosis, because in all cases, the patient‘s personality disorder can be specified by a combination of core impairment in personality functioning and the particular set of pathological personality traits that are unique to that patient. Paranoid, Schizoid, Histrionic, and Dependant Personality Disorders will no longer be listed but will be subsumed under the PD traits category Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 7 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • Personality Disorders Characterized by Odd or Eccentric Behaviour These individuals often have difficulty relating to others, or may show now interest in developing social relationships • Paranoid Personality Disorder Type of personality disorder characterized by persistent suspiciousness of the motives of others, but not to the point of holding clear-cut delusions . Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 8 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • Personality Disorders Characterized by Odd or Eccentric Behaviour • Schizoid Personality Disorder • Type of personality disorder characterized by a persistent lack of interest in social relationships, flattened affect, and social withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 9 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • Schizoid personality. It is normal to be reserved about displaying one‘s feelings, especially when one is among strangers, but people with schizoid personalities rarely express emotions and are distant and aloof. Yet the emotions of people with schizoid personalities are not as shallow or blunted as they are in people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 10 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • Personality Disorders Characterized by Odd or Eccentric Behaviour • Schizotypal Personality Disorder Type of personality disorder characterized by eccentricities or oddities of thought and behaviour but without clearly psychotic features. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 11 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology PARANOID TYPES OF PESCHIZOIDY DISORDERS SCHIZOTYPAL •Overly sensitive to •Socially isolated •Difficulty forming criticism •Loners close relationships •Easily angered •Eccentrics •Odd behaviour, •Unlikely to confide in •Lack of interest in mannerisms, and others social relationships thought patterns •Question the •Shallow or blunted •May be particularly sincerity and emotions anxious in social trustworthiness of •Distant and aloof situations related to friends and •Faces show no paranoid thinking associates emotional expression •Lack of interest in •Hyper-vigilant •Indifferent to praise social relationships •Deny blame for or criticism •May experience misdeeds •More interested in unusual perceptions •Cold, aloof, abstract ideas than in or illusions scheming, devious, people •“magical thinking” humourless •May be deeply •May appear •Argumentative sensitive and curious unkempt, display and want to be loved unusual mannerisms but unable to express and behaviour Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 12 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • Personality Disorders Characterized by Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Behaviour Behaviour patterns are excessive, unpredictable, or self- centred with difficulty forming and maintaining relationships • Antisocial Personality Disorder (and Psychopathy) • Type of personality disorder characterized by a chronic pattern of antisocial and irresponsible behaviour and lack of remorse. They violate the rights of others and often break the law. They are irresponsible and impulsive, yet can be charming and at least average in intelligence. They exhibit low levels of anxiety in threatening situations and show no guilt or remorse for wrongdoing. Punishment has little effect. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 13 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • PSYCHOPATHY Type of personality pattern characterized by affective and interpersonal traits, such as shallow emotions, selfishness, arrogance, superficial charm, deceitfulness, manipulativeness, irresponsibility, sensation-seeking, and a lack of empathy, anxiety, and remorse, combined with persistent violations of social norms, a socially deviant and nomadic lifestyle, and impulsiveness. This pattern of behaviour begins in childhood or adolescence and extends into adulthood Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 14 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • PSYCHOPATHY • Not all criminals show signs of psychopathy and only a minority of people with psychopathic personalities become criminals eg: Clifford Olson, Paul Bernardo, Karla Homolka • Many psychopaths are law-abiding and quite successful in their chosen occupations, yet they possess a personality style characterized by a callous disregard of the interests and feelings of others. • Robert Hare devised the Psychopathy Checklist which is used to identify and diagnose psychopaths and determine their degree of psychopathy. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 15 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • PSYCHOPATHY • Psychopathic personality has come to be viewed as composed of two somewhat independent factors , although many psychopathic individuals show evidence of both sets of traits. • These factors are : personality (charming, selfish, lack of empathy and remorse) and behavioural (unstable and antisocial lifestyle) • Antisocial personality disorder cuts across all racial and ethnic groups. Researchers find no evidence of ethnic or racial differences in the rates of the disorder Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 16 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS There are several psychophysiological and biological factors that are related to antisocial personality and psychopathy: • Lack of emotional responsiveness • The craving-for-stimulation model • Lack of restraint on impulsivity-frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex is implicated • Limbic abnormalities-less brain activity in emotional parts of the brain but more activity in the areas responsible for processing and regulating emotional information Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 17 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER • Primarily characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in relationships, self-image, and mood and a lack of control over impulses. People with BPD tend to be uncertain about their values, goals, loyalties, careers, choices of friends, and perhaps even sexual orientations. • They have persistent feelings of emptiness and boredom, cannot tolerate being alone and desperately try to avoid feelings of abandonment which may make them clinging and demanding in their social relationships. • Their feelings towards others are intense and shifting, alternating between adulation and loathing. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 18 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER Borderline personality disorder. World War II dictator Adolf Hitler lived—and died—by the Nazi principle of ―death before dishonour‖—arguably a form of the ―all or-nothing‖ thinking characteristic of BPD. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 - 19 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS • BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER • This term was originally used to refer to individuals whose behaviour appeared to be on the border between neuroses and psychoses. • Many people with BPD also meet the criteria for other personality disorders • Instability of mood is a central characteristic of BPD. • May be self-destructive and may carry our self- mutilation an expression of anger or as a means of manipulating others • Psychodynamic theorists believe that these individuals cannot synthesize positive and negative elements of personality into complete wholes and fail Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.ties or images
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