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Chapter 8 - Eating Disorders & Sleep Disorders

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PSY 223
Deb Cooke

Chapter 8: Eating Disorders & Sleep Disorders 8 - 1 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING AND SLEEP DISORDERS • Eating disorders like bulimia nervosa & anorexia nervosa often affect people of high school or college age, especially young women. • Eating disorders are psychological disorders involving disturbed eating patterns and maladaptive ways of controlling body weight • Another class of psychological disorders that commonly affect young people are sleep disorders. • Sleep disorders are sleep problems of sufficient severity and frequency that lead to significant personal distress or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other roles. 8- 2 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING DISORDERS Anorexia Nervosa & Bulimia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder primarily affecting young women, characterized by maintenance of an abnormally low body weight, distortions of body image, intense fears of gaining weight or becoming obese and, in females, amenorrhea. (p. 296) Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by a recurrent pattern of binge eating followed by self-induced purging and accompanied by persistent over concern with body weight & image, although a healthy body weight is usually maintained. (p.298) These eating disorders are often accompanied by other forms of psychopathology including mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse disorders Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 8- 3 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING DISORDERS Subtypes of Anorexia •Supported by differences in personality patterns •Binge-eating/purging type-individuals have problems relating to impulse-control which may involve substance abuse or stealing. They alternate between rigid control and impulsive behaviour •Restrictive type-rigidly, even obsessively, controlled about their diet and appearance Medical complications of anorexia •Amenorrhea and Osteoporosis •Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal problems 8- 4 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING DISORDERS • Medical complications of bulimia • Irritations of the skin around the mouth, blockage of salivary ducts, decay of tooth enamel and dental cavities • Decreased sensitivity to the aversive taste of vomit • Abdominal pain and other abdominal problems as well as pancreatitis-inflammation of the pancreas • Laxative dependency, loss of the bowel’s reflexive eliminatory response to pressure • Potassium deficiency which produces muscular weakness, cardiac irregularities and even sudden death-especially when diuretics are used. • Convulsions and swelling if bingeing on salty food Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 8- 5 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING DISORDERS Bingeing. People with bulimia nervosa may cram thousands of calories during a single binge and then attempt to purge what they have consumed by forcing themselves to vomit. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 8- 6 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING DISORDERS Who’s at risk? Competitive activities that emphasize endurance, aesthetics, and weight levels put athletes at risk for developing an eating disorder. Runners, wrestlers, swimmers, and dancers are among the athletes who have a high occurrence of eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 8- 7 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING DISORDERS Causes of Anorexia & Bulimia • Sociocultural Factors-societal pressures and expectations, unrealistic standard of thinness and the importance of appearance, often a focus for women’s dissatisfaction and distress, media • Psychosocial Factors-may have been slightly overweight, a history of rigid dieting, body dissatisfaction, perfectionist and ‘black and white’ thinking, exaggerated beliefs about the consequences of gaining weight, less social support and poorer social skills, lower self esteem, depression, and anxiety issues, abuse 8- 8 Essentials of Abnormal Psychology EATING DISORDERS • Causes of Anorexia & Bulimia • Family Factors-often are more conflicted, less cohesive and nurturing and more overprotective and critical than reference groups. From the systems perspective, girls who develop anorexia may be seen as helping maintain the shak
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