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Soc 232 Jan 23rd.odt

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SOC 232
Stuart Leard

Sociology 232 January 23 2013 1 Box 3.3 –does the religious orthodoxy of the nation as a whole impact the individual? –National religiosity: those dimensions when you can see people acting to doctrine –used multiple indicators –national religiosity does have an effect on the individual; in a secular society a family religious orthodoxy has a stronger impact –in a secular society if a person has a religious orientation it is due to their family, not society Reliability: refers to 1.the stability of a measure over time (whether one would get some result after using a measure at two different times, assuming no change in what is being measured). •Stability can be measured using the test-retest method •it is extremely difficult to quantify stability over time because of the number of factors that may come into play over the passage of time, including the fact the respondents took a prior or pre-test that may influence a subsequent test 1.internal reliability (or internal consistency) are multiple measures administered in one sitting consistent with each other •a test to see to what degree the indicators are related to one another •if they are worthy of using as a indicator of one concept the Cronbach's alpha test should show a correlation of .8 or higher 1.inter-observer consistency: all observers should classify behaviours or attitudes the same way •team may go into playground to measure levels of aggression in children, team will need to know exactly what they are going to observe and how they will code their observations Measurement Validity –measurement validity is concerned with whether one is measuring what one wants to measurement –there are various kinds of validity –face validity: is established if, at first glance, the measure appears to be valid. Ask for the opinion of someone with expertise in the area of study. –convergent validity: is established if a measure of a concept correlates with a second measure of the concept that uses a different measurement technique –example: with crime you would collect police records as well as victimization surveys –concurrent validity: is established if the measure correlates with some criterion though to be relevant to the concept. A lack of correlation brings some doubt abut the validity (correctness) of the original measurement. –ie. if IQ scores correlate as expected with grades in university concurrent validity is established –construct validity: is established if the concepts relate to each other in a way that is consistent with the researcher's theory Sociology 232 January 23
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