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Soc 233 Sept 21

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SOC 233
Kara Somerville

SOC 233 Sept. 21, 2011 Durkheim - Division of Labour Division of Labour: Different specializations in the labour force.  How social order was maintained in different types of societies.  We are interdependent due to division of labour; rely on each other. Q – How is social order maintained in different societies?  Durkheim looked at this with division of labour. 1. Mechanical Solidarity: Traditional societies; same functions from person to person.  People do the same things and have a lot in common.  Shared beliefs and values; collective conscience.  Strong social norms; everybody adheres to the same norms.  Everybody is in tune with the same ideas, values, norms and beliefs.  Religion is VERY powerful in traditional society.  Repressive law. 2. Organic Solidarity: Modern societies; different functions from person to person.  Religion less significant.  French Revolution brought about attack on religion.  Less collective conscience.  People brought together through DIVISION OF LABOUR.  Reliance on people; interdependence.  Individuals play increasingly specialized roles which have created dissimilar experiences in society.  Society held together through needs of each person.  Restitutive law. Note – Durkheim was a functionalist, so these ideas are reflective of his way of thinking. 4 Dimensions of the Collective Conscience: 1. Volume: Number of people enveloped by the collective conscience.  Mechanical – Entire society.  Organic – Particular groups. 2. Intensity: How deeply the collective conscience is felt by individuals?  Mechanical – High.  Organic – Low. 3. Rigidity: How clearly is collective conscience defined?  Mechanical – High.  Organic – Low. 4. Content: What collective conscience embodies.  Mechanical – Religious.  Organic – Moral individualism. Theory of Religion  How can society function without religion? Religion is the cement that holds society together.  Religion was an expression of social cohesion through sha
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